Because its capacity was exhausted the cemetery was closed the following year, on 25 March 1794. At this time, the French kingdom was in economic troubles. France extended their helping hands to the American colonists’ fight for Independence from the British, but their economy reached an unsustainable tipping point of bankruptcy. As a liberal aristocrat, he did not want the fall of the monarchy but rather the establishment of a liberal one, similar to that of the United Kingdom, based on cooperation between the king and the people, as was to be defined in the Constitution of 1791. While imprisoned in the Tower of the Temple, Marie Antoinette, her children, and Élisabeth were insulted, some of the guards going as far as blowing smoke in the ex-queen's face. [71], Empress Maria Theresa died on 29 November 1780 in Vienna. [220], Marie-Antoinette is also known for her taste for fine things, and her commissions from famous craftsmen, such as Jean-Henri Riesener, suggest more about her enduring legacy as a woman of taste and patronage. To carry this out, Louis Charles was separated from his mother on 3 July after a struggle during which his mother fought in vain to retain her son, who was handed over to Antoine Simon, a cobbler and representative of the Paris Commune. On 11 July at Marie Antoinette's urging Necker was dismissed and replaced by Breteuil, the queen's choice to crush the Revolution with mercenary Swiss troops under the command of one of her favorites, Pierre Victor, baron de Besenval de Brünstatt. Marie-Antoinette, in full Marie-Antoinette-Josèphe-Jeanne d’Autriche-Lorraine (Austria-Lorraine), originally German Maria Antonia Josepha Joanna von Österreich-Lothringen, (born November 2, 1755, Vienna, Austria—died October 16, 1793, Paris, France), Austrian queen consort of King Louis XVI of France (1774–93). Je ne l’ai pas fait exprès" or "Pardon me, sir, I did not do it on purpose", after accidentally stepping on her executioner's shoe. His relationship with the king was more cordial. Their reaction comforted her since these women were not otherwise sympathetic to her. Mme de La Motte was sentenced for life to confinement in the Pitié-Salpêtrière Hospital, which also served as a prison for women. [76][77], In 1782, after the governess of the royal children, the princesse de Guéméné, went bankrupt and resigned, Marie Antoinette appointed her favorite, the duchesse de Polignac, to the position. She accepted Necker's proposition to double the representation of the Third Estate (tiers état) in an attempt to check the power of the aristocracy. [24] Two days after the death of Louis XV in 1774, Louis XVI exiled du Barry to the Abbaye de Pont-aux-Dames in Meaux, pleasing both his wife and aunts. Rose Bertin created dresses for her, and hairstyles such as poufs, up to three feet (90 cm) high, and the panache (a spray of feather plumes). On 10 May 1774, her husband ascended the throne as Louis XVI and she became queen. [20], Madame du Barry proved a troublesome foe to the new dauphine. The continued poor financial climate of the country resulted in the 25 May dissolution of the Assembly of Notables because of its inability to function, and the lack of solutions was blamed on the queen. She wanted to be able to own her own property. [217], For many revolutionary figures, Marie Antoinette was the symbol of what was wrong with the old regime in France. When Louis XVI understood their only chance of survival was to escape, it was too late: the royal flight to Varennes took place during the night of the 21 st June 1791, and was unsuccessful largely due to the king’s indecision. Occupation: Queen of France Born: November 2, 1755 in Vienna, Austria Died: October 16, 1793 in Paris, France Best known for: The last Queen of France who was beheaded during the French Revolution Biography: Where was Marie Antoinette born? [82], Count Axel von Fersen, after his return from America in June 1783, was accepted into the queen's private society. [citation needed], Barnave had advised the queen to call back Mercy, who had played such an important role in her life before the Revolution, but Mercy had been appointed to another foreign diplomatic position[where?] [207][208], Preparing for her execution, she had to change clothes in front of her guards. Oct 19, 2016 - Marie Antoinette with a bust of her husband Louis XVI. In 1774, Louis succeeded his grandfather Louis XV. [184][185] On 13 August the royal family was imprisoned in the tower of the Temple in the Marais under conditions considerably harsher than those of their previous confinement in the Tuileries. Louis, the last real French King, tasted monarchical power beginning in 1774. It was en vogue at the time for nobles to have recreations of small villages on their properties. After the death of her brother Joseph in 1790, his successor, Leopold,[174] was willing to support her to a limited degree. During the Revolution, she became known as Madame Déficit because the country's financial crisis was blamed on her lavish spending and her opposition to the social and financial reforms of Turgot and Necker. [64], Repayment of the French debt remained a difficult problem, further exacerbated by Vergennes and also by Marie Antoinette's prodding[65] Louis XVI to involve France in Great Britain's war with its North American colonies. [137][140][141], The abolition of feudal privileges by the National Constituent Assembly on 4 August 1789 and the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen (La Déclaration des Droits de l'Homme et du Citoyen), drafted by Lafayette with the help of Thomas Jefferson and adopted on 26 August, paved the way to a Constitutional Monarchy (4 September 1791 – 21 September 1792). Some of her contemporaries, such as Thomas Jefferson, attributed to her the start of the French Revolution. [179][180], Marie Antoinette's actions in refusing to collaborate with the Girondins, in power between April and June 1792, led them to denounce the treason of the Austrian comity, a direct allusion to the queen. Back at the royal palace at Versailles, heat was developing. Christian burial of the royal remains took place three days later, on 21 January, in the necropolis of French kings at the Basilica of St Denis. Marie Antoinette, the 15th child of Holy Roman Emperor Francis I and the powerful Habsburg empress Maria Theresa, was born in Vienna, Austria, in 1755–an age of … [99] The fact that the birth occurred exactly nine months after Fersen's return did not escape the attention of many, leading to doubt as to the parentage of the child and to a noticeable decline of the queen's reputation in public opinion. While some advocated her death, others proposed exchanging her for French prisoners of war or for a ransom from the Holy Roman Emperor. [204] At worst, she and her lawyers had expected life imprisonment. [227], In addition to her biological children, Marie Antoinette adopted four children: "Armand" Francois-Michel Gagné (c. 1771–1792), a poor orphan adopted in 1776; Jean Amilcar (c. 1781–1793), a Senegalese slave boy given to the queen as a present by Chevalier de Boufflers in 1787, but whom she instead had freed, baptized, adopted and placed in a pension; Ernestine Lambriquet (1778–1813), daughter of two servants at the palace, who was raised as the playmate of her daughter and whom she adopted after the death of her mother in 1788; and finally "Zoe" Jeanne Louise Victoire (1787-? The new Duc d'Orléans publicly protested the king's actions, and was subsequently exiled to his estate at Villers-Cotterêts. The national assembly, upon hearing that King Louis had intentions to suppress them, became more provoked. Maria Antonia was born on 2 November 1755 at the Hofburg Palace in Vienna, Austria. [7][53][54] The child's paternity was contested in the libelles, as were all her children's. The June 1791 attempted flight to Varennes and her role in the War of the First Coalition had disastrous effects on French popular opinion. Marie Antoinette had profoundly disliked Rohan since the time he had been the French ambassador to Vienna when she was a child. This led to the July 1789 storming of the Bastille prison. The Brunswick Manifesto, issued on 25 July 1792, triggered the events of 10 August[183] when the approach of an armed mob on its way to the Tuileries Palace forced the royal family to seek refuge at the Legislative Assembly. [73][74], Despite the general celebration over the birth of the Dauphin, Marie Antoinette's political influence, such as it was, did greatly benefit Austria. There were and still claims that the two were romantically involved,[83] but since most of their correspondence has been lost or destroyed, there is no conclusive evidence. She and her court also adopted the English fashion of dresses made of indienne (a material banned in France from 1686 until 1759 to protect local French woolen and silk industries), percale and muslin. Finally, on 8 August, Louis XVI announced his intention to bring back the Estates General, the traditional elected legislature of the country, which had not been convened since 1614.[122]. Marie Antoinette was prevented from seeing it, but fainted upon learning of it. Marie-Antoinette warned her Swedish admirer to be more careful after Louis XVI, her husband, almost stumbled across one of his secret messages to the French queen, researchers have revealed.The [14][15][4] On 14 May she met her husband at the edge of the forest of Compiègne. She was born into Royalty as the daughter of Empress Marie Theresa and Francis I, the Holy Roman Emperor, who together ruled over the Hapsburg Empire.. [223] This phrase originally appeared in Book VI of the first part of Jean-Jacques Rousseau's autobiographical work Les Confessions, finished in 1767 and published in 1782: "Enfin Je me rappelai le pis-aller d'une grande Princesse à qui l'on disait que les paysans n'avaient pas de pain, et qui répondit: Qu'ils mangent de la brioche" ("Finally I recalled the stopgap solution of a great princess who was told that the peasants had no bread, and who responded: 'Let them eat brioche'"). [citation needed], After Louis' execution, Marie Antoinette's fate became a central question of the National Convention. Dumouriez resigned and refused a post in any new government. A marriage between the two royal houses had been planned since the early 1760s, but only came about in 1770. [120], The political situation in 1787 worsened when, at Marie Antoinette's urging, the Parlement was exiled to Troyes on 15 August. She put on a plain white dress, white being the color worn by widowed queens of France. [169], As her correspondence shows, while Barnave was taking great political risks in the belief that the queen was his political ally and had managed, despite her unpopularity, to secure a moderate majority ready to work with her, Marie Antoinette was not considered sincere in her cooperation with the moderate leaders of the French Revolution, which ultimately ended any chance to establish a moderate government. "[196] This was the most difficult period of her captivity. Marie Antoinette's trial began on 14 October 1793, and two days later she was convicted by the Revolutionary Tribunal of high treason and executed, also by guillotine, on the Place de la Révolution. It further deteriorated when Louis XVI tried to use a lit de justice on 11 November to impose legislation. [121] The May Edicts issued on 8 May 1788 were also opposed by the public and parliament. On the advice of Mercy, Marie Antoinette opened secret negotiations with him and both agreed to meet privately at the château de Saint-Cloud on 3 July 1790, where the royal family was allowed to spend the summer, free of the radical elements who watched their every move in Paris. [135][136] The king was greeted at the event with loud cheers of "Long live the king! [101][102][103][104][105][106][107][108] Fraser has also noted that the birthdate matches up perfectly with a known conjugal visit from the King. As early as 1774, Marie Antoinette had begun to befriend some of her male admirers, such as the baron de Besenval, the duc de Coigny, and Count Valentin Esterházy,[41][42] and also formed deep friendships with various ladies at court. Died in childhood; no issue. [96] This was unpopular, particularly with those factions of the nobility who disliked the queen, but also with a growing percentage of the population, who disapproved of a Queen of France independently owning a private residence. [206] Her will was part of the collection of papers of Robespierre found under his bed and were published by Edme-Bonaventure Courtois. [205] In the hours left to her, she composed a letter to her sister-in-law, Madame Élisabeth, affirming her clear conscience, her Catholic faith, and her love and concern for her children. [222], The phrase "Let them eat cake" is often attributed to Marie Antoinette, but there is no evidence that she ever uttered it, and it is now generally regarded as a journalistic cliché. She was 37 years old. Marie Antoinette's mother and the Austrian ambassador to France, comte de Mercy-Argenteau, who sent the Empress secret reports on Marie Antoinette's behavior, pressured Marie Antoinette to speak to Madame du Barry, which she grudgingly agreed to do on New Year's Day 1772. [152] An agreement was reached turning Mirabeau into one of her political allies: Marie Antoinette promised to pay him 6000 livres per month and one million if he succeeded in his mission to restore the king's authority. [100] The majority of Marie Antoinette's and Louis XVII's biographers believe that the young prince was the biological son of Louis XVI, including Stefan Zweig and Antonia Fraser, who believe that Fersen and Marie Antoinette were indeed romantically involved. [219] The people of France saw her death as a necessary step toward completing the revolution. Marie Antoinette, whose life was as much in danger, remained with the king, whose power was gradually being taken away by the National Constituent Assembly. [4], Maria Antonia formally renounced her rights to Habsburg domains, and on 19 April she was married by proxy to the Dauphin of France at the Augustinian Church in Vienna, with her brother Archduke Ferdinand standing in for the Dauphin. [97][98], On 27 March 1785, Marie Antoinette gave birth to a second son, Louis Charles, who bore the title of duc de Normandie. She became dauphine of France in May 1770 at age 14 upon her marriage to Louis-Auguste, heir apparent to the French throne. While from late 1787 up to his death in June 1789, Marie Antoinette's primary concern was the continued deterioration of the health of the Dauphin, who suffered from tuberculosis,[123] she was directly involved in the exile of the Parlement, the May Edicts, and the announcement regarding the Estates-General. Thanks to Barnave, the royal couple was not brought to trial and was publicly exonerated of any crime in relation with the attempted escape. This resulted in the queen being viewed as an enemy, although she was personally against Austrian claims to French territories on European soil. [167][168], On 17 July 1791, with the support of Barnave and his friends, Lafayette's Garde Nationale opened fire on the crowd that had assembled on the Champ de Mars to sign a petition demanding the deposition of the king. [94], On 27 April 1784, Beaumarchais's play The Marriage of Figaro premiered in Paris. On 19 April the wedding took place by proxy in Vienna, marrying the Dauphin and future Louis XVI, the grandson of Louis XV, to Marie-Antoinette, the youngest daughter of Maria-Theresa of Habsburg.On 16 May, the young Archduchess arrived at Versailles. 1. [81], In June 1783, Marie Antoinette's new pregnancy was announced, but on the night of 1–2 November, her 28th birthday, she suffered a miscarriage. [221], Long after her death, Marie Antoinette remains a major historical figure linked with conservatism, the Catholic Church, wealth, and fashion. [194] Calls were also made to "retrain" the eight-year-old Louis XVII, to make him pliant to revolutionary ideas. As soon as it opened on 5 May 1789, the fracture between the democratic Third Estate (consisting of bourgeois and radical aristocrats) and the conservative nobility of the Second Estate widened, and Marie Antoinette knew that her rival, the Duc d'Orléans, who had given money and bread to the people during the winter, would be acclaimed by the crowd, much to her detriment. [70] Her third pregnancy was affirmed in March 1781, and on 22 October she gave birth to Louis Joseph Xavier François, Dauphin of France. During the famine of 1787, she sold the royal flatware in order to provide grain to families who were struggling. [51] Eight months later, in April 1778, it was suspected that the queen was pregnant, which was officially announced on 16 May. [citation needed] The result of these two nominations was that Marie Antoinette's influence became paramount in government, and the new ministers rejected any major change to the structure of the old regime. [189], Charged with treason against the French First Republic, Louis XVI was separated from his family and tried in December. What about Siad Bare of Somalia ??? [16][17] The couple's longtime failure to consummate the marriage plagued the reputations of both Louis-Auguste and Marie Antoinette for the next seven years. She still hoped her son Louis-Charles, whom the exiled Comte de Provence, Louis XVI's brother, had recognized as Louis XVI's successor, would one day rule France. Dumouriez sympathized with the royal couple and wanted to save them but he was rebuffed by the queen. [228] The purchase of Saint-Cloud thus damaged the public's image of the queen even further. This last accusation drew an emotional response from Marie Antoinette, who refused to respond to this charge, instead appealing to all mothers present in the room. [162][163], Upon learning of the capture of the royal family, the National Constituent Assembly sent three representatives, Antoine Barnave, Jérôme Pétion de Villeneuve and Charles César de Fay de La Tour-Maubourg to Varennes to escort Marie Antoinette and her family back to Paris. [45][46], Amidst the atmosphere of a wave of libelles, the Holy Roman Emperor Joseph II came to France incognito, using the name Comte de Falkenstein, for a six-week visit during which he toured Paris extensively and was a guest at Versailles. Transferred to the La Force prison, after a rapid judgment, Marie Louise de Lamballe was savagely killed on 3 September. [228], Last Queen of France prior to the French Revolution, Articles and topics related to Marie Antoinette, Generations are numbered by male-line descent from, Significant civil and political events by year, Motherhood, changes at court, intervention in politics (1778–81), Prelude to the Revolution: scandals and the failure of reforms (1786–89), Failure of political and financial reforms, French Revolution before Varennes (1789–91), Flight, arrest at Varennes and return to Paris (21–25 June 1791), Radicalization of the Revolution after Varennes (1791–92), Events leading to the abolition of the monarchy on 10 August 1792, harvnb error: multiple targets (4×): CITEREFFraser2002 (, harvnb error: multiple targets (2×): CITEREFLever2006 (, harvnb error: no target: CITEREFPierre_NolhacLa_Dauphine_Marie_Antoinette,1929 (, harvnb error: no target: CITEREFNolhac1929 (, harvnb error: no target: CITEREFAlfred_et_Geffroy_D'ArnethCorrespondance_Secrete_entre_Marie-Therese_et_le_Comte_de_Mercy-Argenteau,_vol_31874 (, harvnb error: no target: CITEREFCronin1974 (, harvnb error: no target: CITEREFALfred_and_Geffroy_d'Arneth1874 (, harvnb error: no target: CITEREFJackes_LevronMadame_du_Barry1973 (, harvnb error: no target: CITEREFEvelyne_LeverMarie_Antoinette1991 (, harvnb error: no target: CITEREFArneth_and_Geffroy_ii1874 (, harvnb error: no target: CITEREFLeverMarie_Antoinette_1991 (, harvnb error: no target: CITEREFArneth_and_Geffroy_i1874 (, harvnb error: no target: CITEREFHoward_Patricia,_Gluck1995 (, harvnb error: no target: CITEREFArneth_and_Geoffroy,_iii1874 (, harvnb error: no target: CITEREFPrice_MunroPreserving_the_Monarchy:_The_Comte_de_Vergennes,_1774–17871995 (, harvnb error: no target: CITEREFPrice1995 (, harvnb error: no target: CITEREFLettres_de_Marie_AntoinetteLe_Marquis_de_Beaucourt1895Vol_ii (, harvnb error: no target: CITEREFLever,_Marie_Antoinette1991 (, harvnb error: no target: CITEREFMunro_PriceThe_Road_to_Versailles2003 (, harvnb error: no target: CITEREFZweig_StephanMarie_Antoinette1938 (, Farr, Evelyn, Marie Antoinette and Count Fersen: Untold Love Story, Hunt, Lynn. 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