Thermal anomaly around earthquake fault — evidence from fission-track analysis of Nojima fault borehole samples. Tectonics and heat sources for granulite metamorphism of supracrustal-bearing terranes. Eos, Transactions American Geophysical Union. This fault has ruptured four times in the past 900 years, each time producing an earthquake of about magnitude 8. The Alpine Fault is called a strike slip or transform fault. Price, Postcollisional Tectonics and Magmatism in the Mediterranean Region and Asia, This site uses cookies. The beds are complexly folded, but the metamorphic belts are regular and trend almost parallel to the Alpine Fault and to the alpine divide. The Alpine schists increase in metamorphic grade from prehnite‐pumpellyite facies 9–12 km from the fault through the chlorite and biotite zones … Physics, Comets and The Alpine fault of New Zealand is a major continental transform fault which has been uplifted on its southeast side 4–11 km within the last 5 m.y. From Turner (1981) Metamorphic Petrology: Mineralogical, Field, and Tectonic Aspects. This uplift has exposed the Alpine schists, which have been metamorphosed from the adjacent Torlesse graywackes. Four zones of progressive metamorphism are recognized: the Chlorite, Biotite, Almandine, and Oligoclase zones. This region has generated great interest among geologists, in part because it is one of only a few places where the surface tectonic record Metamorphic Grade Greenschist Facies Alpine Fault Blueschist Facies Alpine Metamorphism These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. Low-grade albite- and peristerite-mylonites occur as a northeast-tapering, 200–300 m wide zone structurally above basal cataclasite on the Alpine fault (New Zealand). Mode of crustal shortening adjacent to the Alpine Fault, New Zealand. Processes, Information Seismic Source Dynamics, Radiation and Stress. Four zones of progressive metamorphism are recognized: the Chlorite, Biotite, Almandine, and Oligoclase zones. and you may need to create a new Wiley Online Library account. S3 schistosity, L3 lineations and F3 folds are associated with strain in, and adjacent to the Alpine Fault Zone. It is probable that prograde metamorphism in the root zone of the Southern Alps releases metamorphic fluids that at some region rise vertically rather than following the trace of the Alpine Fault up to the surface, owing to the combined effects of the fault, the disturbed isotherms under the Southern Alps, and the brittle–ductile transition. A metamorphic rock used to be some other type of rock, but it was changed inside the Earth to become a new type of rock. Temperatures, heat flux, and frictional stress near major thrust faults. Rb-Sr and K-Ar ages on minerals at temperatures of 300°–400° C from deep wells in the Larderello geothermal field (Italy), Journal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth. Objects, Solid Surface Abstract Low-grade albite- and peristerite-mylonites occur as a northeast-tapering, 200–300 m wide zone structurally above basal cataclasite on the Alpine fault (New Zealand). From the crest of the range westward to the Alpine Fault the grade of metamorphism increases from indurated sedimentary rocks to high-grade schists and gneisses. The Alpine fault of New Zealand is a major continental transform fault which has been uplifted on its southeast side 4–11 km within the last 5 m.y. doi: https://doi.org/10.1130/G32273.1. Geology and Geophysics, Physical In the Southern Alps there is a significant uplift following the Cretaceous Rangitata Orogeny, probably in the order of 11–15 km. and Petrology, Exploration Their mineralogy matches low-grade protoliths that occur 100–110 km to the southeast. They form an inverted metamorphic sequence grading eastward into an ∼1-km-wide, amphibolite-facies−derived mylonite zone in the hanging wall. Metamorphism in geology is when one type of rock is transformed into another type of rock called a metamorphic rock. Semi-brittle deformation within the Alpine fault zone, New Zealand. Ductile structures in the greenschist facies rocks of the Alpine Schist that lie in the headwaters of the Whataroa, Callery, and Balfour valleys formed during Mesozoic deformation, similar to those in the Otago Schist to the south. Earthquakes along the fault, and the associated earth movements, have formed the Southern Alps. Geophysics in Mining and Environmental Protection. Geology ; 39 (11): 1023–1026. Journal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth. Frictional heating, fluid pressure, and the resistance to fault motion. These metamorphic zone boundaries are subparallel to the fault for 350 km along the strike. The Mechanics of Earthquakes and Faulting. Characterization of Ore-Forming Systems from Geological, Geochemical and Geophysical Studies, Exhumation Associated with Continental Strike-Slip Fault Systems, Crustal Cross Sections from the Western North American Cordillera and Elsewhere: Implications for Tectonic and Petrologic Processes, The Greenland Caledonides: Evolution of the Northeast Margin of Laurentia, Whence the Mountains? the Alpine Fault yield much greater ages (140-130m.y. The Alpine Fault is a right-lateral transform fault that also has extreme uplift rates of up to 10 mm/yr in its central portion (e.g. Mountain formation refers to the geological processes that underlie the formation of mountains.These processes are associated with large-scale movements of the Earth's crust (tectonic plates).Folding, faulting, volcanic activity, igneous intrusion and metamorphism can all be parts of the orogenic process of mountain building. Adopting a friction model for the fault and applying the known geological history of motion of the Alpine fault, we show that the metamorphism resulted from frictional heating during the 360‐km right lateral slip on the Alpine fault during the Mesozoic (Rangitata) period of fault motion (140–80 m.y. The word metamorphic comes from the Greek words meaning “change” and “form.” There are two main factors that can cause the conversion: heat, pressure. 10.1130/0091-7613(2003)031<0541:NFHATS>2.0.CO;2. The type of rock that a metamorphic rock usedto be, prior to metamorphism, is called the protolith. During metamorphism the mineral content and texture of the protolith are changed due to changes in the physical and chemical environment of the rock. If you do not receive an email within 10 minutes, your email address may not be registered, The Alpine (S 3) foliation in the nonmylonitic part of the Alpine Schist near Franz Josef and Fox Glaciers is near-vertical and strikes ∼040 in contrast to the Alpine Fault, which strikes ∼050 (Fig. However, the bulk of the uplift, approximately 25 km, took place in the past 10 m.y. and Chemical Oceanography, Physical Mechanics Problems in Geodynamics Part II. Tasman Belt and the Alpine Fault. Shear heating and the state of stress on faults. Permeability and strength of San Andreas Fault gouge under high pressure. Physics, Solar Fission-track analysis of the Atotsugawa Fault (Hida Metamorphic Belt, central Japan): fault-related thermal anomaly and activation history. McGraw-Hill. The Alpine Fault, which runs for about 600km up the spine of the South Island, is one of the world’s major geological features. On the Relationship between Deformation and Metamorphism, with Special Reference to the Behavior of Basic Rocks. Processes in Geophysics, Atmospheric Use the link below to share a full-text version of this article with your friends and colleagues. Please check your email for instructions on resetting your password. A comparison between the tectonic stress measured in situ and stress parameters from induced seismicity at Monticello Reservoir, South Carolina. Fission track analysis reveals character of collisional tectonics in New Zealand. Some constraints on levels of shear stress in the crust from observations and theory. The mountains are rising at 7 millimetres a year, but erosion wears them down at a similar rate. Number of times cited according to CrossRef: Application of Fission-Track Thermochronology to Understand Fault Zones. Muscovite K-Ar ages of the Sanbagawa schists, Japan and argon depletion during cooling and deformation. The obliquely-convergent plate boundary in the South Island of New Zealand: implications for ancient collision zones. The interpretation of inverted metamorphic isograds using simple physical calculations. From the crest of the range westward to the Alpine Fault the grade of metamorphism increases from indurated sedimentary rocks to high-grade schists and gneisses. Derivation of gold by oxidative metamorphism of a deep ductile shear zone: Part 1. Frictional-viscous flow, seismicity and the geology of weak faults: a review and future directions. This motion is accommodated by the Alpine Fault zone: a kilometre-wide dextral-reverse shear zone which extends up to 40 kilometres into the Earth’s crust and acts as a vast geological conveyor belt, transporting amphibolite-grade rocks at the base of the Pacific plate up to the Earth’s surface. ago). Some thermal and mechanical consequences of rapid uplift: an example from the Southern Alps, New Zealand. Quantitative models for both the metamorphism and the argon depletion require that the frictional shear stress acting on the fault during both episodes of fault motion was at least 1–1.5 kbars. The alpine schists grade eastward into these less metamorphosed upper Triassic beds. It’s the "on-land" boundary of the Pacific and Australian Plates. This uplift has exposed the Alpine schists, which have been metamorphosed from the adjacent Torlesse graywackes. Strain hardening and strength of clay‐rich fault gouges. Fault motion began again in the Plio‐Pleistocene Kaikoura orogeny, with 120 km of further right lateral slip and 4–11 km of uplift. Structure and metamorphism of the Haast Schist and Torlesse Zones between the Alpine Fault and the D'urville Valley, South Nelson . Dynamic models of interseismic deformation and stress transfer from plate motion to continental transform faults. Fault interaction and stresses along broad oceanic transform zone: Tjörnes Fracture Zone, north Iceland. From Turner (1981) Metamorphic Petrology: Mineralogical, Field, and Tectonic Aspects. Composition and Structure, Atmospheric The thermal structure and thermal evolution of the continental lithosphere. On the meaning of peak temperature profiles in inverted metamorphic sequences. By continuing to use our website, you are agreeing to our, Fault rock lithologies and architecture of the central Alpine fault, New Zealand, revealed by DFDP-1 drilling, New on-fault evidence for a great earthquake in A.D. 1717, central Alpine fault, New Zealand, Gneiss domes, vertical and horizontal mass transfer, and the initiation of extension in the hot lower-crustal root of a continental arc, Fiordland, New Zealand, Textural changes of graphitic carbon by tectonic and hydrothermal processes in an active plate boundary fault zone, Alpine Fault, New Zealand, Locating the deep extent of the plate boundary along the Alpine Fault zone, New Zealand: Implications for patterns of exhumation in the Southern Alps, Evolution of the middle and lower crust during the transition from contraction to extension in Fiordland, New Zealand, Caledonian metamorphic patterns in Greenland, A stratigraphic unit converted to fault rocks in the Northland Allochthon of New Zealand: Response of a siliceous claystone to obduction, Cenozoic tectonic evolution of the eastern Rhodope massif (Bulgaria): Basement structure and kinematics of syn- to postcollisional extensional deformation, Copyright © 2020 Geological Society of America. 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Mantle decoupling and ophiolite displacement Iberia–Africa Plate boundary: Tectonics at South Island, New Zealand right... Japan and argon depletion aureole was the Fault itself Fault and the of! And transverse Ranges, California: evidence from fission-track analysis of the Atotsugawa Fault ( Hida BELT... Age and tectonic setting of Tertiary Alpine Fault, California: a view from the Hirabayashi-NIED,. Boundaries are subparallel to the Fault: from 4 m.y of interseismic deformation and stress parameters from induced seismicity Monticello. Eastward into an ∼1-km-wide, amphibolite-facies−derived mylonite zone in the hanging wall of Mantle... Use in tectonic studies, each time producing an earthquake of about magnitude 8 Valley, South Carolina metamorphic.! Increase with distance from the Fault itself the geology of weak faults: a review and future.! % ) of rupturing in the prehnite-pumpellyite zone, New Zealand for anomalous heating in zones. 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