The resort is about an hour and a half away from Kuala Lumpur. Other terms used to refer to landslide include slope failures, slope instability and terrain instability.Landslide may happen almost anywhere, from anthropogical slopes to natural, original condition of the ground. The arrays supported by this program are the Wenner (Alpha, Beta and Gamma configurations – the Alpha configuration is normally used for field surveys and usually just referred to as the “Wenner” array), Wenner-Schlumberger, pole-pole, inline dipole-dipole, pole-dipole and equatorial dipole-dipole (Edwards 1977). If you need assistance with writing your essay, our professional essay writing service is here to help! http://www.earthsci.un. This program will hopefully help you in choosing the “best” array for a particular survey area after carefully balancing factors such as the cost, depth of investigation, resolution and practicality. , 1996; Slater et al. Many of the early 2-D surveys were carried out with this array. This study aims to develop an ERM with a high spatial resolution and study the ERM performance in the characterization of soil water content dynamics from a quantitative point of view in small-scale evaporation tests, in order to support the future study of desiccation cracking in field investigations. Testing Mater., 1964 ; Lambe, 1951). The ground resistivity is related to various geological parameters such as the mineral and fluid content, porosity and degree of water saturation in the rock. Water is one of the essential necessities of nature, indispensible to all organic life and a necessary resource for livelihood; so therefore, its importance cannot be overemphasized. Resistivity meters normally give a resistance value, R = V/I, so in practice the apparent resistivity value is calculated by. However, there are still some uncertainties associated with stress level in the shear band; for this reason, stresses determined using boundary forces from this test are considered average stresses for the interface. More recently, it has been used for environmental surveys. Electric surveys are used instead of drilling methods to eliminate the chance of … The geophysical method which dominant by geophysicists become one of most popular method applied by engineers in civil engineering fields. Arthur and Menzies (1972),Arthur et al (1977),Symes (1983),Tatsuoka et al (1986) had stated that the soil properties then depend on the direction with respect to deposition,or the bedding planes,in which the soil is subsequently sheared. The changes in the electric resistivity values of geoelectrical section result from the material of the rock (density, shape, and porosity), water content, water quality and its content and temperature. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. An experimental application of electrical resistivity/resistance method (ERM) to characterize the evaporation process of sandy soil. Landslide is one of the most destructive natural disasters in tropical region with these set of climate and geological condition, combined with other causative factors. Abstract Electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) is a non-invasive geophysical method of primary interest for addressing subsur- face engineering problems. Retrouvez Groundwater Reserve Assessment: Application of Electrical Resistivity Method et des millions de livres en stock sur Amazon.fr. Figure 3: Data Acquisition Map of the Study Area. In tropical climate such as Malaysia, the phenomenon is common especially in hilly areas during monsoon season. From the graph,the highest resistivity value is at point L2C1E7 It is because it has high shear strength values. Also, resistivity surveys may be used as a reconnaissance method, to detect anomalies that can be further investigated by complementary geophysical methods and/or drill holes. The clearance between the boxes by tightening the wedges were eliminated.A soil specimen 0.5 inch thick and 1-15/16 inches in diameter was trimmed ,weighted and it being placed in the shear device. So, the electric resistivity … Application of this method to sites located in alluvial deposits in Iowa revealed that the degree of success of the method was directly related to the degree of contamination. Although there is … The desired normal load was then applied. All landslides are triggered by similar causes (Bujang B.K. Copyright © 2020 Elsevier B.V. or its licensors or contributors. The resistivity measurements are normally made by injecting current into the ground through two current electrodes (C1 and C2), and measuring the resulting voltage difference at two potential electrodes (P1 and P2). Study for free with our range of university lectures! Geotechnical studies and engineering prospects to assess and stabilize potentially dangerous can be costly. Unfortunately, landslide monitoring schemes could not warn the existence of any impendingfor any landslide or even to detect some obvious pre-sliding signs. Electrical resistivity surveys have been used for many decades in hydrogeological, mining and geotechnical investigations. The profile are line 1, line 2, line 3 and line 4. The free program, RES2DMOD.EXE, is a 2-D forward modeling program which calculates the apparent resistivity pseudosection for a user defined 2-D subsurface model. 2. Majotiry of rock-forming minerals are electrical insulators although some native metals and graphite conduct electricity .The measured resistivities in earth materials are majorly controlled by the movement of charged ions in pore fluids. A calibration relationship between the recorded soil electrical resistance by ERM and the water content measured by the oven drying method was established. The range of elevation in Fraser Hill is from 400 to 1300 meters above sea level. The calculated resistivity value is not the true resistivity of the subsurface, but an “apparent” value which is the resistivity of a homogeneous ground which will give the same resistance value for the same electrode arrangement. The dipole-dipole array gives good horizontal resolution but may have a poor signal-to-noise ratio because the potential electrodes are outside of the current electrodes. A 3-D resistivity survey and interpretation model should be even more accurate in theory. Two-dimensional (2D) electrical resistivity imaging surveys were performed along four profiles in the study site. Żwirki i Wigury 93, 02-089 Warszawa, Poland 2) Faculty of Civil Engineering, Warsaw … The landslides are often triggered by water accumulation within part of the slope which leads to weakening of a section of the slope. Shear force applied to the side of the top half of the box to cause failure. Surface geoelectric prospecting techniques detect the effects of induced electric currents flowing through the ground. Resistivity measurement using ABEM Terrameter SAS 4000. On the other hand, quantitative assessment of transport behaviours in soil sand rocks from ERT data is recorded in poor manner. Application of Geoelectrical Resistivity Method to the Assessment of Groundwater Pollution: A case Study of Onibu-Eja Active Open Dumpsite, Osogbo, Southwestern Nigeria Ugwu N.U. It also provides insights on the potential of ERM in field applications to characterize soil hydraulic responses to drought climate. To determine the subsurface characteristics of the study area based upon electrical resistivity images. In the case of soil testing, the problems with direct shear testing are important from a continuum mechanics perspective; however, if the interface direct shear test is considered as a surface test, then homogeneity is required only along the idealized shear band. This study presents that the developed ERM is effective to record soil moisture dynamics, especially in the near-surface zone, in small-scale evaporation tests. In this section, we will look at the steps involved in converting the apparent resistivity values into a resistivity model section will be discussed. There is a lack of clear policy for landslide monitoring from a country scale perspective. A range of behaviors can be investigated by applying these test conditions to soils with different initial states ranging from very loose to very dense. Monitoring of a critical cut slope during construction or after a landslide is done through Geotechnical instruments; tilt-meter, pizo-meter and tensile-meter are the main instruments that used for monitoring the alignment, groundwater level and soil creep. Do you have a 2:1 degree or higher? ( Binleyetal. However, it is less sensitive to horizontal changes in the subsurface resistivity. 2-D and even 3-D electrical surveys are now practical commercial method with the relatively nowadays advancement technology of multi-electrode resistivity surveying instruments (Griffiths et al. The resistivity of subsurface rock formations is one of the physical properties determined through the process of logging that is performed on most oil and gas wells, utilizing instrumentation inserted into the wellbore. In this article we will discuss about the applications of low and high resistivity materials in electrical engineering. The cohesion and angle of friction value obtained from shear strength results were important parameter because it give indication on how strong the soil can be shear. Most slides often occur in areas that have experienced sliding in the past. The higher the value of cohesion and angle of friction contribute to higher shear strength. For the next 60 years, conventional sounding surveys (Koefoed 1979) were normally used for quantitative understanding. (1995) describe the use of a direct shear apparatus for developing constitutive models for interfaces. Careful engineering and geologic study could then follow before such specific project could be implemented. According to Gassim et al., (2001), the mean annual rainfall for the catchment is about 2624 mm with average of 208 rain- days in a year. Besides, a numerical approach combining a soil-atmosphere interaction model and a coupled hydro-thermal model was employed to study the evaporation-induced variations of soil water content. Our academic experts are ready and waiting to assist with any writing project you may have. A change in electrical resistivity may suggest changes in composition, layer thickness, or pollution levels. Faire correspondre . ERM has been applied by various application … The resistivity procedure begins in the 1920’s due to the research of the Schlumberger brothers. This area is located about 30Km west of Semnan province, Iran. The road to the hill resort winds for about 35 km after the Gap. Electrical resistivity/resistance method (ERM) The use of ERM refers to measuring soil apparent resistivity as a function of soil physical properties. Electrical resistivity method (ERM) is an attractive approach in the assessment of soil physical properties (water content, void ratio, density, etc. Free resources to assist you with your university studies! 1995). There were 13 major landslides reported in Malaysia, involving both cut and natural slopes with a total lost of more than 100 lives from 1993 to 2004,. The principal applications of this technique include (Telford et al., 1990; Reynolds, 1997; Šumanovac, 2006) definition of aquifer boundary units, such as aquitards, bedrock, faults and fractures, the detection of voids in karstic regions, the mapping of saltwater intrusions into coastal aquifers, the identification of contaminated groundwater plumes, the detection of mineralized zones, and the exploration of sand and gravel resources among others. The electrical resistivity method has some inherent limitations that affect the resolution and … And according to Steeples (2001), there has been an increase in the application of geophysical methods to near-surface problems generally including landslide studies, waste disposal site investigations, groundwater explorations, detecting faults, and determining physical properties of soil. Thus a sample deposited vertically through the top of the apparatus (in the conventional way/ and tested horizontally in the direct shear will yield a plane strain angle of friction close to the minimum value for the soil. Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/C, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pce.2020.102873. Within the last few years, IT technology has been applied to monitor critical landslide after the tragedy of landslide in Antarabangsa Hill and Taman Hillview tragedy situated within Kuala Lumpur. Because of global climate change, drought occurs in increasing intensity and frequency across the world. Direct shear are repeated on similar samples at various normal stresses. Noté /5. We're here to answer any questions you have about our services. The lowest resisitivity value is at point L2C2E17 where it has low shear strength values. This value indicates that at this point,the soil is difficult to shear and it makes water to be difficult to enter then contributed to the high resistivity .One of the reason is because its porosity is high. Currently, monitoring tenders are issued by the government institutions which are carried on by the private sector. We use cookies to help provide and enhance our service and tailor content and ads. However, at the present time, Dahlin (1996) reported that 2-D surveys are the most effective economic acceptance between obtaining very successful results and keeping the survey expenses down. Electrical Resistivity Method (ERM) is part of geophysical methods which used as preliminary step involve in any groundwater exploration. Electrical resistivity method was adopted in mapping sand/gravel beds for commercial mining and delineation of water table in Njaba river bank and environs. From the current (I) and voltage (V) values, an apparent resistivity (pa) value is calculated. To export a reference to this article please select a referencing stye below: If you are the original writer of this essay and no longer wish to have your work published on UKEssays.com then please: Our academic writing and marking services can help you! Electrical Resistivity Method (ERM) is one of geophysical tool that offer very attractive technique for subsurface profile characterization in larger area. There are jungle trails, waterfalls, and flower nurseries, a very pleasant 9-hole golf course, and a riding stable. Jan Mudler, Andreas Hördt, Anita Przyklenk, Gianluca Fiandaca, Pradip Kumar Maurya, Christian Hauck, Two-dimensional inversion of wideband spectral data from the capacitively coupled resistivity method – first applications in periglacial environments, The Cryosphere, 10.5194/tc … It utilizes direct currents or low frequency alternating currents to investigate the electrical properties (resistivity) of the subsurface. An according to Singh et al (2006), an inversion of the measured apparent resistivity values using a computer program must be carried out to determine the true subsurface resistivity. For accommodation, Fraser’s Hill has a range of hotels, chalets and colonial bungalows to suit one’s preferences and budget. Hence, it is necessary to briefly describe the soil strength component of the work,as follows: The shearing behaviour of sand has so far been assumed to be isotropic; that is,the sand at a given density and mean stress level subject to any plane strain shear test has been assumed to have a unique peak angle of friction. VAT Registration No: 842417633. The electrical resistivity method has been used to delineate shallow zones of ground-water contamination resulting from solid waste disposal sites. Anonymous 2005. Thus, it is important to accurately map the zone of ground water accumulation. Geophysics 42: 555-561, Anonymous 2005. The important point for a designer concerned with stability analysis is that the shearing resistance in a sample or direct shear test on a sample deposited vertically in the apparatus develops along the bedding planes in the soil,and this corresponds closely with the minimum plane strain shearing resistance in the soil, Tatsuoka et al (1986). The ground resistivity is related to various geological parameters such as the mineral and fluid content, porosity and degree of water saturation in the rock. The calculated resistivity value is not the true resistivity of the subsurface, but an “apparent” value which is the resistivity of a homogeneous ground which will give the same resistance value for the same electrode arrangement. Disclaimer: This work has been submitted by a university student. According to Lagmanson (2005), some properties which affect the resistivity of rock and soil are porosity,moisture content,dissolved electrolytes, temperature of pore water, and conductivity of minerals The proposed laboratory method. application of electrical resistivity method to sodium sulfate exploration. The Wenner array is usually applied for a good vertical resolution, but may also provide a reasonable horizontal resolution (Sasaki, 1992). Potts, Dounias and Vaughan (1987) performed a finite element analysis and concluded that the non-uniformities within the direct shear box sample have little affect on the stress-strain behavior, and with little error the test may be interpreted as if it were a simple shear test. The difference between the maximum peak plane strain angle of friction which occurs when the sample is sheared across the bedding planes, and the minimum peak plane strain angle of friction which occurs when the sample is sheared along the bedding planes,is likely to depend on the soil particle shape and grading,and the method of soil deposition,among other factors. Any opinions, findings, conclusions or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of UKEssays.com. According to Gomiz-Ortez et al (2006), electrical resistivity imaging is a geophysical prospecting technique designed for the investigation of areas of complex geology; this involves measuring a series of resistivity profiles, using a computer to control measurements between selected sets of an electrode array. In recent years complex ERT inversion techniques have been constructed, making tomographic imaging of subsurface ?uid movement possible. Registered Data Controller No: Z1821391. This harmful situation always occurred in highland area during wet season. Electrical resistivity surveys have been used for many decades in hydro geological, mining and geotechnical investigations. Education In this method, the centre point of the electrode array remains unchanged, but the spacing between the electrodes is increased to produce more explaination about the deeper sections of the subsurface. In Malaysia which is rapidly moving towards urbanization, many occurrences of landslides had been reported as a serious hazard which had fatalities and losses and results in severe damages in infrastructure. 1st Jan 1970 Other direct-shear apparatus and test methods are presented elsewhere ( Am. This is a robust array that was popularized by the pioneering work carried by The University of Birmingham research group (Griffiths and Turnbull 1985; Griffiths, Turnbull and Olayinka 1990). This program is largely intended for teaching about the use of the 2-D electrical imaging method. Applicable alternative technique in groundwater exploration such as ERM which complement with existing conventional method may produce comprehensive and convincing output thus effective in terms of cost, time, data coverage and sustainable. An environmental chamber filled with initially saturated sand was designed for the evaporation test. The relationship between the “apparent” resistivity and the “true” resistivity is a complex relationship. We've received widespread press coverage since 2003, Your UKEssays purchase is secure and we're rated 4.4/5 on reviews.co.uk. The simplicity of the testing operation and interpretation of test results make the direct shear box a good choice to begin the study of the complicated behavior of unsaturated soil interfaces. Therefore, landslides monitoring in nation scale will be highly appropriate. Electrical Resistivity Method (ERM) is … According to Srinivasamoorthy (2009), the important purpose of electrical surveys is to determine the subsurface resistivity distribution by making measurements on the ground surface. This is not an example of the work produced by our Essay Writing Service. For instance, water supplies, fisheries, sewage disposal systems, forests, dams, and roadways can be affected for years after a slide event. From a practical perspective, the direct shear test has many advantages for examining interface behavior, including the ability to simulate different loading paths (Boulon 1989, Boulon et al. The relationship between the “apparent” resistivity and the “true” resistivity is a complex relationship. The direct-shear test is one of the oldest methods for determining the shear strength of soil materials. (2007), and one of the most important landslide sites is located in the Altindag district. 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High resistivity materials in electrical resistivity method Research Papers on Academia.edu for free for! The relationship between the “ true ” resistivity is useful for detecting lateral and vertical in... Imaging surveys were performed along four profiles in the program might also assist the user choosing...