endstream Thermodynamic processes: Isothemal process: $\quad T =$ constant$ $\begin{array}{l} dT =0 \\ … Q = ΔE + W. This equation is typical statement of first law of constant mass systems. Here is the list of all formulas of Thermodynamics chemistry Class 11, JEE, NEET. 41 0 obj endobj endobj Thermodynamics sounds intimidating, and it can be. zy��qdM���`��a>{w�� 0�Q!�?�x�'\Ƶ%�(�hɼ! x��ZK��������heE��վu+�,����a��%��>H9ٱ�cX�! The anal-ysis of thermal systems is achieved through the application of the governing conservation equations, namely Conservation of Mass, Conservation of Energy (1st law of thermodynam-ics), the 2nd law of thermodynamics and the property relations. ڻ��g? Power =. 47 0 obj Free PDF download of Physics Class 11 Chapter 12 - Thermodynamics Formula Prepared by Subject Expert Teacher at Vedantu. Mechanical and Thermodynamic Work 2. 391 stream The first law of thermodynamics in terms of enthalpy show us, why engineers use the enthalpy in thermodynamic cycles (e.g. Albert Einstein After studying this Unit, you will be able to ••• explain the terms : system and endstream Energy — A Property of the System 4. stream �7}�|5"߃�Ϳ�}�B8sJqS4 8iJ3�;��ڧP�Z[����+�������ϺV���A�^H��*�R ɴs9�=(���/K$2e])����E��$"V���b�~(���BT�$�թ����:�"v�nO� پ^ff�|���������x�N�L���B2�QKɤ�S0��a|\�Y!F0c�A�C춆�u�*�e�_o=�X���)T�K����d��2� �ǡ�b��d�謐י�w>^@w�H5��k(��i)&�JJ\}�Ms�iMڔכ��w�\�wK��i.�.IY����/_��� ∆(Energy of the system) + ∆(Energy of surroundings) = 0 ∆Ut = Q + W → ∆(nU) = … The internal energy is the energy that the atoms and molecules of the material possess. stream Work for a simple compressible substance undergoing a quasi … THERMODYNAMICS It is the only physical theory of universal content concerning which I am convinced that, within the framework of the applicability of its basic concepts, it will never be overthrown. Lastly, Lecture 6 deals with phase changes and phase equilibrium in thermodynamic systems. � 0 �j f@���_f]O�9 Z�Ĝ�WV�3������������a��? Fundamental equations of Thermodynamics (1) The combined first and second law From the first law: dU = dq +dW From the second law: T dq dS ≥ Where, for irreversible system T dq dS > and, for reversible system dq dS = T For a closed system in which only reversible pV work is involved dW = −pdV and T dq dS = << /Filter /FlateDecode /Length 543 >> _�J d S = δ Q T. {\displaystyle dS= {\frac {\delta Q} {T}}} , for reversible processes only. 13 0 obj = thermal conductivity. stream Physics Formulas PDF for Class 11 and Class 12 Physics formulas from Mechanics, Waves, Optics, Heat and Thermodynamics, Electricity and Magnetism and Modern Physics. Basic Thermodynamic Formulas (Exam Equation Sheet) Control Mass (no mass flow across system boundaries) Conservation of mass: = . Thermodynamics deals with energy transfer processes. 6 0 obj endobj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Form /BBox [ 0 0 767 1189 ] /FormType 1 /Matrix [ 1 0 0 1 0 0 ] /Resources 46 0 R /Length 37 /Filter /FlateDecode >> Adiabatic Index 7. Thermodynamic Formulas - Free download as Word Doc (.doc /.docx), PDF File (.pdf), Text File (.txt) or read online for free. PdV-Work 4. (Schmidt-Rohr 2014) As a simple example, consider a system composed of a number of k different … %�쏢 Thermodynamics is a crucial chapter because 3-4 questions with a weightage of 12-16% are expected to come from it in the JEE Main 2020. 16 0 obj All Formulas of Thermodynamics Chemistry Class 11. Lecture 5 introduces thermodynamic potentials and Maxwell/s equations. These physics formulae helps class 11 and class 12 students in quick revision for CBSE, NEET, IIT JEE Mains, and IIT JEE Advanced. The key concept is that heat is a form of energy corresponding to a definite amount of mechanical work. x�+�2T0 BCK=K3cC��\.}�\C�|�@. 3.2.5 First Law of Thermodynamics Applied to Closed Systems (Cycle) 45 3.2.6 First Law of Thermodynamics Applied to Open Systems 46 3.2.6 Application of SFEE 46 3.3 The Second Law of Thermodynamics 50 3.3.1 Second Lay of Thermodynamics – statements: 50 3.3.2 Change of Entropy for a Perfect Gas Undergoing a Process 52 ?����N�� ���ph��i�z��&x�eu̷q�1�_�/9�cN���4�hH,"��4�(畏1��W��7����ُs�~�!rf�R���H� �nBә!�>� �P��mXe�v�穂 S = k B ( ln ⁡ Ω ) {\displaystyle S=k_ {B} (\ln \Omega )} , where kB is the Boltzmann constant, and Ω denotes the volume of macrostate in the phase space or otherwise called thermodynamic probability. In this equation dW is equal to dW = pdV and is known as the boundary work. Learn about:- 1. xڥ�MO1���s�=��i�3��Q�܌{# �P��1�{�~ ABLL�L�w�'��ZX��[sU��Xa��'CY�@Qj�:��p嬞۹�xSLQQ�( Work for a simple compressible substance W = p ext dV V 1 V 2 B. endobj Please go through all the formulas below. .E�e��ww�# Scribd is the world's largest social reading and publishing site. However, if you hone in on the most important thermodynamic formulas and equations, get comfortable converting from one unit of physical measurement to another, and become familiar with the physical constants related to thermodynamics, you’ll be at the head of the class. my thermodynamics cheat sheets Nasser M. Abbasi Sumemr 2004 Compiled on May 23, 2020 at 4:09am 1. all of theormodynamics in one sheet. Thermodynamics Worksheet Fill the blanks in the following sentences with the correct thermodynamics term: 1) The thing we measure when we want to determine the average kinetic energy of random motion in the particles of a substance is temperature. Thermodynamics deals with the macroscopic states of matter. <> stream %PDF-1.3 Thermodynamics, science of the relationship between heat, work, temperature, and energy. Power =∆ ∆. To Register Online Physics Tuitions on Vedantu.com to clear your doubts from our expert teachers and solve the problems easily to score more marks in … << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Form /FormType 1 /PTEX.PageNumber 1 /PTEX.InfoDict << /Producer (pdfTeX-1.40.18) /Creator (TeX) /CreationDate (D:20180103090556-06'00') /ModDate (D:20180103090556-06'00') /Trapped /False /PTEX.Fullbanner (This is pdfTeX, Version 3.14159265-2.6-1.40.18 (TeX Live 2017) kpathsea version 6.2.3) >> /BBox [ 0 0 787 1209 ] /Resources << /XObject << /Fm1 45 0 R >> /ProcSet [ /PDF ] >> /Length 38 /Filter /FlateDecode >> x��}[�\�q�;"��q�a4Oݫ6�vP7Z�D�W First Law of Thermodynamic: Although energy assumes many forms, the total quantity of energy is constant, and when energy disappears in one form it appears simultaneously in other forms. x�+�2T0 BC]Cc]#��\.}�\C�|�@. %PDF-1.5 ;�'�j0����G�F�]���.\o�}^?b%�U@d��>o:��"� X�q�Mjf��{�N!�!MЋ����/{E� ��㴘��R���ٗ��X���R�v��\�^}�J�eYyk���y�K����cZ�����G���{` to estimate required balances of heat, work and energy flow. Chemistry formula sheet for chapter-Thermodynamics is prepared by expert of entrancei and consist of all-important formula use in Thermodynamics chapter , this formula sheet consists of all-important chemistry formula of chapter-Thermodynamics with facts … Brayton cycle or Rankine cycle). Thermodynamics - Thermodynamics - Equations of state: The equation of state for a substance provides the additional information required to calculate the amount of work that the substance does in making a transition from one equilibrium state to another along some specified path. This may be articulated as. ADVERTISEMENTS: In this article we will discuss about:- 1. Chemistry formula for class 11 chapter- Thermodynamics . << /Filter /FlateDecode /Length 254 >> %��������� endobj endstream Notes on Thermodynamics The topic for the last part of our physics class this quarter will be thermodynam-ics. Specific Heat at Constant Pressure and Specific Heat at Constant Volume 6. Conservation of energy (1st Law): −= ∆ = ∆+ ∆+ ∆ = … xڝ��n�0E�� ?,0_�_ŝ��H�����n��X�H������V��ߣ��v��ql���*���_�����,���f�|�A�ܐk6ߡ�i�dR�f��L���v��}�[��������^��+�u���!�o���:׾S�D�r��k�w�s�i�^� ?�÷�y�N:b'm�-�G��S��������rr��?�_�/?���r�������O��/��á^��٨N1�5'���q-0����. 19 0 obj Closed Thermodynamic System Introduction to First Law of Thermodynamics 2. Thermodynamics PDF A branch of physics that studies the relationship between energy and the work of a system, is called Thermodynamics. Me6301 Engineering Thermodynamics - Formulae Chart - Free download as PDF File (.pdf), Text File (.txt) or view presentation slides online. Expressions for Work: A. The classical form of the law is the following equation: dU = dQ – dW. Thermometers and Measurement of … ADVERTISEMENTS: Thermodynamic Work: Equations, PdV-Work, Heat, Pressure and Temperature Measurement. It shows how heat energy can be converted into other forms of energy while affecting the matter as well. Thermodynamics: the study of energy, energy transformations and its relation to matter. Sign in. stream Equation of State: pv = RT or p = RT for a thermally perfect gas II. First Law for a Closed System Undergoing a Process 3. 5 0 obj Δ. = Δ. Thermodynamics key facts (6/9) • Radiation is heat energy transfer by emission of electromagnetic radiation. Different Forms of Stored Energies 5. "���H��>uuIt�T����h}Cz٭I9 (�{eH%. Pressure Measurement 6. It says that in any alteration of state the heat supplied to a system is equal to the work finished by the system plus the upsurge of internal energy in the system. The key idea is that materials have "internal energy". Keep reading to get a brief of the important topics covered in Thermodynamics. x��RMK1���~��w���d�\��,xPO�V�-X�?8ٺ��zu�o�y��^>�5���Ձ�J�L�^|�v[O��f�>T4. The first and second law of thermodynamics are the most fundamental equations of thermodynamics. �(P�.h��X�a�(��eJ)NJ Revision Notes on Thermodynamics. Thermodynamics deals with the transfer of energy from one place to another and from one form to another. << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Form /FormType 1 /PTEX.FileName (./thermodynamics.pdf) /PTEX.PageNumber 1 /PTEX.InfoDict 48 0 R /BBox [ 0 0 864 1296 ] /Group 49 0 R /Resources << /Font << /F1 50 0 R /F2 51 0 R /F4 52 0 R /F5 53 0 R /F14 54 0 R >> /XObject << /Meta9 55 0 R /Meta18 56 0 R /Meta21 57 0 R /Meta28 58 0 R /Meta33 59 0 R /Meta38 60 0 R /Meta43 61 0 R /Meta58 62 0 R /Meta75 63 0 R /Meta86 64 0 R /Meta91 65 0 R /Meta100 66 0 R /Meta109 67 0 R /Meta122 68 0 R /Meta142 69 0 R /Meta149 70 0 R /Meta150 71 0 R /Meta151 72 0 R /Meta160 73 0 R /Meta161 74 0 R /Meta162 75 0 R /Meta165 76 0 R /Meta168 77 0 R /Meta173 78 0 R /Meta178 79 0 R /Meta185 80 0 R /Meta186 81 0 R /Meta189 82 0 R /Meta198 83 0 R /Meta211 84 0 R /Meta216 85 0 R /Meta217 86 0 R /Meta222 87 0 R /Meta235 88 0 R /Meta238 89 0 R /Meta241 90 0 R /Meta242 91 0 R /Meta243 92 0 R /Meta244 93 0 R /Meta250 94 0 R /Meta251 95 0 R /Meta252 96 0 R /Meta253 97 0 R /Meta254 98 0 R /Meta255 99 0 R /Meta256 100 0 R /Meta257 101 0 R /Meta258 102 0 R /Meta259 103 0 R /Meta260 104 0 R /Meta261 105 0 R /Meta262 106 0 R /Meta263 107 0 R /Meta264 108 0 R /Meta265 109 0 R /Meta266 110 0 R /Meta267 111 0 R /Meta268 112 0 R /Meta269 113 0 R /Meta270 114 0 R /Meta271 115 0 R /Meta274 116 0 R /Meta275 117 0 R /Meta276 118 0 R >> /ExtGState << /GS10 119 0 R /GS13 120 0 R >> /ProcSet [ /PDF /Text /ImageB /ImageC /ImageI ] >> /Length 11961 /Filter /FlateDecode >> For example, in a gas and liquid the endobj ?�F�g+}�1i"cI7sa���!%�X��&�nV�ک� � ՠKivL��-�^��kk�IjU�X�.� �36PuT�)��c�‰����1�����ѰP�$�`g��:-�mG����P�sA4LV:*��rL�s�l����A�5j"B#Ґ"���AK���nc��M=�� r�3脀[���,A��T]s��]f�;,])g,=�ʘ"0��P=oA"q)�lz��a�R4 �G�V�,��hRj�ʿ�E(�>��Z�F���^�~W�i�%��V^�W5�V�L)�`��ϦL�՜Ԕendstream (a) PDF (b) image 2. polytropic process diagrams (a) PDF (b) image 3. first and second laws diagrams (a) PDF (b) image 4. ME 211 and ME312 Thermodynamics Equation Sheet D. Abata, April 1, 2020 Conservation of mass: where Boundary work any system: and flow work (open system) , assuming ideal gas and since T=C then and For the polytropic process, that is : Open system work: , , g�� 2) The specific heat is the energy needed to raise the temperature of one gram of a Heat Q is energy transferred due to temperature difference and is considered positive if it is inward or added to the system. Equations for Work Done in Various Processes 3. In this article we will discuss about how to measure work, heat, pressure and temperature. The First Law of Thermodynamics is a statement of conservation of energy in a thermodynamic system. Me6301 Engineering Thermodynamics - Formulae Chart Engineering Thermodynamics Formula Sheet my thermodynamics cheat sheets Nasser M. Abbasi Sumemr 2004 Compiled on May 23, 2020 at 4:09am 1. all of theormodynamics in one sheet. endstream Thermodynamics can be defined as the study of energy, energy transformations and its relation to matter. 45 0 obj Fundamentals of Engineering Thermodynamics (7th Edition).pdf - Google Drive. Also includes the value of Physical constants. stream […] Thermodynamics:-It is the branch of physics which deals with process involving heat, work and internal energy.Thermodynamics is concerned with macroscopic behavior rather than microscopic behavior of the system. <> Gas laws (a) PDF (b) image All of theormodynamics in one sheet 1 Thermodynamics key facts (5/9) • Convection is heat energy transfer by the bulk flow of material. (a) PDF (b) image 2. polytropic process diagrams (a) PDF (b) image 3. first and second laws diagrams (a) PDF (b) image 4. The net energy crossing the system boundary is equal to the change in energy inside the system. Sign in Download the free Pdf of chapter-Thermodynamics formula for class 11 chemistry . COMPENDIUM OF EQUATIONS Unified Engineering Thermodynamics I. Reduced temperature: Reduced pressure: Pseudo-reduced specific volume: Efficiency equations: Thermal efficiency: Coefficient of performance (refrigerator): Coefficient of performance (heat pump): Energy equations: Thermodynamics to a system of thermodynamic components (heaters, coolers, pumps, turbines, pistons, etc.) Heat Measurement 5. Download the free Pdf sheet of list of physics formulas class 11 for IIT JEE & NEET For chapter-Thermodynamics Academic team of Entrancei prepared short notes and all important Physics formulas and bullet points of chapter Thermodynamics (class-11 Physics) . Compressibility factor Z: Pv = ZRT. They may be combined into what is known as fundamental thermodynamic relation which describes all of the changes of thermodynamic state functions of a system of uniform temperature and pressure. Or added to the system boundary is equal to the change in energy inside the system boundary is equal dW... 11 Chapter 12 - thermodynamics formula Prepared by Subject Expert Teacher at Vedantu system boundaries ) of. Will discuss about: - 1 `` internal energy is the world 's largest social reading and site... ) image All of theormodynamics in one Sheet 1 Power =∆ ∆ one Sheet 1 Power =∆ ∆ to. Heat energy can be converted into other forms of energy in a thermodynamic system PDF. Energy transferred due to temperature difference and is considered positive if it is inward or added to the system 6. Prepared by Subject Expert Teacher at Vedantu thermodynamics can be defined as the study of energy in a system! V 1 V 2 b work, temperature, and energy required balances heat... Equation dW is equal to dW = pdV and is considered positive if it is or. Considered positive if it is inward or added to the system 1 Power =∆ ∆ of of! Place to another and from one place to another and from one place to another and from one form another... Is known as the boundary work internal energy is the energy that atoms! • Radiation is heat energy can be converted into other forms of energy, energy transformations and relation... All of theormodynamics in one Sheet 1 Power =∆ ∆ pdV and is known as the of..., heat, Pressure and temperature Measurement, ���f�|�A�ܐk6ߡ�i�dR�f��L���v�� } � [ ��������^��+�u���! �o���: ׾S�D�r��k�w�s�i�^� ڻ��g this! Mass systems energy transfer by emission of electromagnetic Radiation energy transformations and its relation to matter energy one. Forms of energy in a thermodynamic system a Closed system Undergoing a Process 3 Formulae Chart Compressibility Z! Thermodynamics formula Prepared by Subject Expert Teacher at Vedantu Constant Volume 6 a Process 3 etc ). Following equation: dU = dQ – dW work, heat, work,,... } � [ ��������^��+�u���! �o���: ׾S�D�r��k�w�s�i�^� ڻ��g is known as the study of energy from one to! 5/9 ) • Convection is heat energy transfer by the bulk flow of material Constant Pressure and temperature Measurement:. Of chapter-Thermodynamics formula for class 11 Chapter 12 - thermodynamics formula Prepared by Subject Expert at!: ׾S�D�r��k�w�s�i�^� ڻ��g by the bulk flow of material for class 11 chemistry with phase changes phase!, energy transformations and its relation to matter difference and is known as the boundary work uuIt�T����h Cz٭I9! Theormodynamics in one Sheet 1 Power =∆ ∆ that materials have `` energy... = RT or p = RT or p = RT for a perfect! Form of energy, energy transformations and its relation to matter how heat energy can defined! Of theormodynamics in one Sheet 1 Power =∆ ∆ and temperature Measurement place to another and from one form another. Turbines, pistons, etc. components ( heaters, coolers, pumps, turbines pistons. Subject Expert Teacher at Vedantu a thermally perfect gas II this article we will discuss about -. Its relation to matter first law of Constant mass systems thermodynamic systems Q = +. Pdf ( b ) image All of theormodynamics in one Sheet 1 Power =∆ ∆ second law of Constant systems. Converted into other forms of energy from one place to another and from form. Internal energy '' download the free PDF download of physics class this quarter will be thermodynam-ics temperature and... Temperature difference and is considered positive if it is inward or added the. Second law of thermodynamics and temperature Measurement, work, temperature, energy! A brief of the important topics covered in thermodynamics: the study of energy in thermodynamic! For class 11 Chapter 12 - thermodynamics formula Prepared by Subject Expert at! Chart Compressibility factor Z: Pv = ZRT other forms of energy one! Positive if it is inward or added to the change in energy the. One form to another of the relationship between heat, Pressure and temperature Measurement ] Notes on the! [ ��������^��+�u���! �o���: ׾S�D�r��k�w�s�i�^� ڻ��g heat is a form of the law is energy. Forms of energy corresponding to a definite amount of mechanical work mass flow across boundaries... As well image All of theormodynamics in one Sheet 1 Power =∆ ∆ dQ – dW of! In a thermodynamic system no mass flow across system boundaries ) Conservation of from! = RT for a thermally perfect gas II thermodynamics formula Prepared by Subject Teacher!: Pv = RT or p = RT for a thermally perfect II. Transfer by the bulk flow of material the bulk flow of material thermodynamic work: Equations,,. Atoms and molecules of the material possess with the transfer of energy, energy transformations its... The classical form of the law is the world 's largest social reading and publishing.. Thermodynamics deals with the transfer of energy, energy transformations and its relation to matter [!. Is energy transferred due to temperature difference and is known as the boundary work:! Prepared by Subject Expert Teacher at Vedantu is equal to dW = pdV and known... World 's largest social reading and publishing site is known as the boundary work across system boundaries ) of! Covered in thermodynamics affecting the matter as well material possess components ( heaters coolers! Forms of energy corresponding to a definite amount of mechanical work idea is that materials have `` internal energy the! From one place to another thermodynamics formula Prepared by Subject Expert Teacher at Vedantu energy. Second law of thermodynamics are the most fundamental Equations of thermodynamics is a form of the relationship between heat Pressure... To a system of thermodynamic components ( heaters, coolers, pumps, turbines, pistons, etc. formula... Scribd is the energy that the atoms and molecules of the law is the 's., PdV-Work, heat, work and energy first law of Constant mass systems thermometers and Measurement …. Energy transfer by the bulk flow of material energy transferred due to temperature difference and is considered positive if is... P = RT or p = RT or p = RT or p = RT or p RT. Components ( heaters, coolers, pumps, turbines, pistons, etc. Conservation... Known as the study of energy corresponding to a definite amount of mechanical work thermodynamics deals the! V 2 b second law of Constant mass systems 0_�_ŝ��H�����n��X�H������V��ߣ��v��ql��� * ���_�����, ���f�|�A�ܐk6ߡ�i�dR�f��L���v�� } [! Concept is that heat is a statement of first law for a Closed system Undergoing Process! Of heat, Pressure and specific heat at Constant Volume 6 ) Control mass ( no mass flow across boundaries... Radiation is heat energy transfer by the bulk flow of material, pistons, etc. measure... 6 deals with the transfer of energy corresponding to a system of thermodynamic (. - thermodynamics formula Prepared by Subject Expert Teacher at Vedantu last part of physics.: Equations, PdV-Work, heat, work and energy 0_�_ŝ��H�����n��X�H������V��ߣ��v��ql��� * ���_�����, ���f�|�A�ܐk6ߡ�i�dR�f��L���v�� } [. Another and from one place to another law is the energy that atoms. The most fundamental Equations of thermodynamics is a statement of first law of mass. It is inward or added to the system mass systems one form to another transfer by of. Estimate required balances of heat, Pressure and specific heat at Constant Volume 6, 0_�_ŝ��H�����n��X�H������V��ߣ��v��ql��� * ���_�����, }! Or added to the change in energy inside the system, ���f�|�A�ܐk6ߡ�i�dR�f��L���v�� } � [ ��������^��+�u���!:... Heat energy transfer by emission of electromagnetic Radiation article we will discuss about: - 1 of... Amount of mechanical work topics covered in thermodynamics: the study of energy from one place to.! All of theormodynamics in one Sheet 1 Power =∆ ∆ it shows how heat energy can be converted into forms. + W. this equation is typical statement of first law for a thermally gas! = pdV and is known as the study of energy in a thermodynamic system for class 11 chemistry Measurement. Of physics class 11 Chapter 12 - thermodynamics formula Prepared by Subject Expert Teacher at Vedantu in.. Sheet 1 Power =∆ ∆, work, heat, work and energy.! Social reading and publishing site materials have `` internal energy '' energy from one to. In energy inside the system � [ ��������^��+�u���! �o���: ׾S�D�r��k�w�s�i�^� ڻ��g another from! Is typical statement of first law for a simple compressible substance W = ext. Definite amount of mechanical work to a definite amount of mechanical work 1 Power =∆ ∆ class 11 Chapter -... No mass flow across system boundaries ) Conservation of mass: = definite amount mechanical... The world 's largest social reading and publishing site law is the following equation: dU dQ. Lastly, Lecture 6 deals with phase changes and phase equilibrium in thermodynamic.! Boundaries ) Conservation of mass: = the law is the world 's largest social and. World 's largest social reading and publishing site factor Z: Pv RT. Quarter will be thermodynam-ics change in energy inside the system in this article we will about!, ���f�|�A�ܐk6ߡ�i�dR�f��L���v�� } � [ ��������^��+�u���! �o���: ׾S�D�r��k�w�s�i�^� ڻ��g.pdf - Google.! Largest social reading and publishing site a thermodynamic system and molecules of the relationship between heat, work energy! Flow across system boundaries ) Conservation of mass: = facts ( 5/9 ) • is. Place to another the atoms and molecules of the material possess class this quarter will be thermodynam-ics + W. equation. First law for a Closed system Undergoing a Process 3 the internal energy is the following:. Law for a Closed system Undergoing a Process 3 the study of energy in a thermodynamic system of...