Our communities. outer coating that cannot be removed or separated from the insect body. The scale overwinters in the egg stage under the females' protective cover. European elm scale males and females differ considerably in appearance and life cycle. The scale covering is brown, elongated … In their juvenile growth stage, they are referred to as "crawlers". On the other hand, in the case of soft scale insects, the length is usually ½ inch. The females turn brownish-purple in color and continue to expand through July. The RED / AMBER / GREEN dots indicate how easy it is to identify the species - see our Identification Difficulty page for more information. A Guide to Scale Insect Identification 1 S. H. Futch, C. W. McCoy, and C. C. Childers 2 Control of scale insects in Florida citrus utilizes native and introduced exotic natural enemies, including predators, … As crawlers, they are highly mobile, six-legged, have no protective cover, and are usually smaller than a pinhead. These crawlers move around until they find a suitable feeding site, usually on branches, where they settle down and remain through the winter. This method, however, is not the quickest or easiest option. Reference to commercial products or trade names is made with the understanding that no discrimination is intended and no endorsement made by The Morton Arboretum. Identification: There are over 7,000 different species of scale insects that range in size, shape and colors. Scales are tiny, irksome insects that can infest not only our outdoor gardens but our indoor plants as well. Scale insects feed on leaves or branches of many ornamental plants grown in landscapes and nurseries. Identification: At first glance, many scale insects look like a small, circular bump that's part of the plant. Scale insects can be divided into two groups:Armored (Hard) – Secrete a hard protective covering (1/8 inch long) over themselves, which is not attached to the body. During feeding by soft scale species, excess plant sap is excreted as a sweet, sticky material called honeydew. Armored scales secrete a protective cover over their bodies and usually overwinter as eggs beneath the female cover. These crawlers search for suitable needles on which to feed and once settled, begin to form their protective armor. Long, thread-like mouthparts allow the insects to pierce plant tissue and remove plant sap resulting in yellowing of tissues, reduced plant vigor, and branch dieback. All native elms are susceptible to this scale. This scale spends the winter on one-to-two-year-old twigs as tiny, dark-colored nymphs. Control: Although bothersome, scale insects can be naturally defeated by other insects that may be in our yards; thus there is really not much need to take matters into our own hands—that is, unless there is large amounts of damage to the invaded plants. Horticultural Oil Precautions Test the spray on a leaf or two. Also, a dark fungus called black sooty mold can be found growing on the sweet honeydew. Insects in the order Hemiptera are commonly called Bugs. A … The Scale Families key was built to help identify all known families of scale insects. What can you tell me about scale insects? Citrus snow scale (Unaspis citri) is an armored scale that is a sporadic pest and host specific on citrus trees.Heavy infestations can almost completely cover the bark and larger limbs and give a white, … After mating, the females lay eggs under their protective shell. Oystershell scale / Early June and late August Houseplant Scale Insect Life Cycle. Bed bugs used to be a problem strictly for the southern US, but in the past … However, at maturity, scale insects are immobile, have no visible legs or antennae, and in the case of armored scales, are covered with a protective shell that ranges from about 1/16-to-3/8-inches in size. They attach themselves to a plant and feed by sucking fluids through straw-like mouthparts. Pine Needle Scale is probably the most common armored scale found on conifers in the United States and Canada. Identifying Scale Plant Insect Scale insects thrive in warm, dry environments. By mid July, the scale is fully grown. Scale Insect Identification. Use enter to activate. Scale insects can weaken and even kill trees, shrubs and houseplants, but in general, complete loss of the plant is rare. Lecanium scale / Mid-June This fungus blackens roofs, porches, and any plant foliage where the honeydew is deposited. and yew (Taxus sp.). Once they start feeding, they quickly begin to produce the hard protective covering as they grow. The scales can vary in length from 1/8-to-1/2-inch, depending on species. You can search, browse, and learn more about the plants in our living collections by visiting our BRAHMS website. Whenthe bump itself can be squashed it is likely to be some othertype of scale. Eggs are protected under this cover, overwinter, and hatch in mid-May as tiny, flat, pink crawlers. Identification of the scale is important as it may aid in better control. For identification purposes, many divide the insects into two main groups: soft scales and armored scales. European elm scale / Early April Peruse through more than 100 gardening “dos and don’ts” in Decoding Gardening Advice. If the amount of devastation is creating a problem, the first step is to properly identify which species of scale you may have. Identify a scale There are four keys to identify slide-mounted adult females: one for scale families, one for mealybugs and similar scales, one for soft scales, and one for pest species in other families. Instead it secretes a thin, transparent film, which does not totally cover the insect. Barkis usually intact beneath a scale. The white, oystershell-shaped scale can completely cover needles causing plant discoloration, needle yellowing, and even branch death. Spruce bud scale / Mid-to-late July. Two generations are commonly produced per year. There is one generation per year. From top level menus, use escape to exit the menu. The average length is 1/8 inch. Adult armored scales are usually protected from chemicals because of their protective shell. The pesticide information presented in this publication is current with federal and state regulations. • Pruning: You can also prune heavily infected branches of trees and shrubs to help keep the plants healthy and lower the risks of further damage by controlling the number of scales. Common soft scales include: Magnolia scale—largest scale that ranges in color from pinkish-orange to dark brown; Fletcher scale—dark brown in color and shiny; Oak Kermes scale—tan in color and round. Scale insects are a unique group, that look quite different from other insects. The Morton Arboretum is a 501(c)(3) nonprofit that relies on the generosity of members and donors. European elm scale—Gossyparia spuria =Eriococcus spurius This scale insect (Eriococcidae) is a pest only on elms, Ulmus spp. Oystershell scale found in our area is either the gray race or the brown race. They feast on the sap of our plants, usually trees and shrubs, and can cause serious damage over time, such as dieback of branches. Magnolia scale / Late September or early spring when buds are opening Natural enemies, such as birds, parasitic wasps, flies, and beetles feed on adults, as well as active crawlers. The following menu has 3 levels. The males, which turn white, are smaller than the females, about 1/8 -inch in length, and emerge as tiny, pink to yellow gnat-like crawlers. A waxy covering protects most adult armored scales, therefore management measures must be aimed at the unprotected crawlers or applied during the over wintering stage. Stop by, email, or call. Get expert help from The Morton Arboretum Plant Clinic. The following spring, it feeds heavily as it grows into an adult. There is one generation per year. Two generations are commonly produced per year. There are many species of scale insects that feed on a wide range of host plants. Most soft scales overwinter as immature, fertilized females. When honeydew falls from a tree, leaves shouldbe inspected for live soft scales or mealybugs. Insecticidal soaps can be effective against the crawler stage but usually have no effect on the adult scale. Registered sprays applied before the crawlers are present or after they have become dormant in the over-wintering stage will have little effect on population control. Contact the Plant Clinic (630-719-2424 or plantclinic@mortonarb.org) for current recommendations. The scale bug is small, oval and flat, with a protective tan to brown shell-like covering (scale). In the fall, the crawlers return to a limb or trunk crevice where they hibernate as nymphs (immature females). Eggs hatch beneath the females in late spring or early summer, and crawlers then migrate to leaves of the host plant to feed. Explore this online platform for Chicago-area residents to share their favorite stories about trees. Hibernating females often resemble small mealy bugs: oval-shaped and covered in short, white, waxy filaments. One generation per year is produced. A sample of the infested plant material may be taken to the local Clemson Extension Service county office. use escape to move to top level menu parent. Scale generally … Pine needle scale / Late May Scale insects are a unique group, that look quite different from other insects. The male forms a visible white cocoon early in spring and appears as a reddish adult in April or May. Host plants include ash, dogwood, lilac, maple, and willow. • Horticultural oils: Horticultural oils, or dormant oils, will cover the scales and smother them. As the nymphs develop, they crawl to other parts of the host plant to feed, although they can be blown to other susceptible hosts. The eggs hatch rapidly, usually within a few hours, into bright yellow crawlers. Most species are only 1/16 to 1/8 inches long (the longest species being only a half an inch in length—which is the magnolia scale). Our future. The male scale produces a small, thin, white covering and can be quite numerous on the undersides of leaves. Scale insects are sap-feeding insects named for the scale or shell-like waxy covering that conceals their bodies. Management of scale insects varies with the species. The eggs hatch into yellow-orange colored crawlers over a two-to-three week period in late May or early June. Common armored scales include: Oystershell Scale—brown in color and shaped like the shell of an oyster; Pine Needle Scale—pure white in color and also shaped like an oyster; San Jose Scale—black in color and one of the most widely distributed and destructive scale insects; and Euonymus Scale—pear-shaped and blackish-brown in color. In most cases, they are able to move short distances (but rarely do) and produ… A second generation follows in late August or early September. Natural Areas Conservation Training Program, Black walnut toxicity (plants tolerant of), Preventing construction damage to trees and shrubs, Trees and shrubs for the four seasons landscape, Sudden Oak Death, Ramorum Blight and Phytophthora ramorum, Eastern United States Wetlands Collection. • Soft scales: Usually soft scales are larger than armored scales and lack the protective shell that armored scales have. Soft scale insects (family Coccidae) have a soft waxy . Males molt into a prepupa for a week and then emerge as winged adults. Scale insects can be difficult to get rid of but spraying with PLANThealth Spectrum and/or Organic Insect Control followed by Organic Super Spraying Oil is most effective, killing scale … Eggs hatch in spring, producing nymph crawlers that emerge white, but gradually change to a glossy brown. Plants frequently infested with scale include Euonymous, magnolia, and fruit trees and shrubs. Have tree and plant questions? They are less effective on armored scale species. Armored scales usually overwinter as eggs beneath the female scale’s cover and then will begin to hatch in spring as “crawlers." Scale insects vary dramatically in appearance, from very small organisms (1–2 mm) that grow beneath wax covers (some shaped like oysters, others like mussel shells), to shiny pearl-like objects (about 5 … In the spring, the scales begin to feed, mature, and change color. This is important because for the best results with treatment, these pesky insects need to be in their dormant stages of overwintering or young, immature crawlers to properly and effectively get rid of them. Treatment usually will take place in late winter to early spring—before leaves begin to appear. The oystershell scale adult armor is light to dark brown and shaped like a tiny oystershell. Needless to say, these scales have an armor-like coating which they use to protect themselves from predators or insecticidal sprays. Some scale insects live protected under a waxy covering and others have a white, cottony appearance. Given their atypical characteristics, scale insects are often not recognized as insects … The female scale lives under a gray or brown shell and is usually found on the branches. Scale insects are often overlooked because many do not look like typical bugs. The user is responsible for determining that the intended use is consistent with the label of the product being used. Once they start feeding, they quickly begin to produce the hard protective covering as they grow. As crawlers, they are highly mobile, six-legged, have no protective cover, and are usually smaller than a pinhead. Use up and down arrow keys to explore within a submenu. The female deposits her eggs beneath herself on a twig of the host plant. Image: Heavy infestation of scale on dogwood shrub. To Get Rid of Scale Insects:. Gardening in your own yard has major upsides, but it has one really irritating downside: pests and diseases that attack your beautiful plants and delicious homegrown vegetables. The information given here is for educational purposes only. Bugs. Females, however, molt into wingless nymph-like adults. Identification. This scale settles on the needles of its host and forms a 1/8-inch white, oystershell-shaped cover. Scale Insect Identification. Use left and right arrow keys to navigate between menus and submenus. Crawler emergence occurs in the fall. The crawlers then migrate to feeding sites along the midrib and other prominent veins on the underside of leaves. The damage of a scale infestation depends upon the type of scale, the species of plant, environmental factors, and the proximity and numbers of natural enemies. Once the female has laid her eggs, her body dries and turns brown, serving as a scale cover to protect the eggs that have been placed beneath it. (For branches thicker than 1 inch, try the 3-cut method.) Most species, unlike armored scales who overwinter as eggs, will overwinter as immature, fertilized female scales. Browse the curated collection and add your voice! The Bad News Bed Bug. Fletcher scale is common in the northern parts of the Midwest and Canada and is most frequently found on arborvitae (Thuja sp.) Our trees. Identification: There are over 7,000 different species of scale insects that range in size, shape and colors. They do not secrete honeydew.Soft – Secrete a waxy film (up to 1/2 inch long) that is part of the body. Within a submenu, use escape to move to top level menu parent. © 2020 Active Interest Media All rights reserved. Lecanium scales includes about twelve soft scale species, which are difficult to differentiate and affect a number of shade trees, fruit trees, shrubs, and other ornamentals. Keep your garden healthy and flourishing with the Successful Solutions to Common Plant Problems Value Pack. Scale insects are very vulnerable in the crawler stage when the young are looking for a place to feed. SB_Johnny _____________________________________________ Identify the most common invasive and beneficial insects in the garden with Good Bug Bad Bug. Research is key! Check plants for live scale infestations. An Annotated Key to the Families of Scale Insects (Homoptera: Coccoidea) of America, North of Mexico, Based on Characteristics of the Adult Female. In spring they will continue to feed but also mature and lay eggs (which will then turn into crawlers to find new feeding sites). It takes a few weeks for the eggs to hatch into nymphs (aka scale … Successful Solutions to Common Plant Problems Value Pack. Building the urban forest for 2050. The hard scale lives and feeds under this spherical armor and does not move about the plant. Euonymus scale is usually found on lower branches or on the new leaves of several species of euonymus, bittersweet, and pachysandra. Annals of the Entomological Society of … This list will help you learn about common pests and diseases and how to identify t… The female scale overwinters under its protective shell and deposits eggs in early spring under the scale covering. At maturity, a single female can produce 500-600 eggs in May, which hatch in late June or early July. In late summer, immature females return to twigs to overwinter. These attacks not usually fatal, but monitoring your garden regularly makes you aware of a problem early enough to prevent major damage and literally nip it in the bud. BUGFINDER is our in-house search form that allows you to quickly peruse the Insect Identification database by making a few basic selections about your insect … However, at maturity, scale insects are immobile, have no visible legs or antennae, and in the case o… Cottony maple scale / Mid- July, Most horticultural oils will not harm the host plants, but it is important to research the labels and ask local nurseries or garden centers which ones are more environmentally friendly than others. Magnolia scale is our largest soft scale insect, reaching ½ inch in length. There are two main groups of scale insects, both of which spend most of their lives as immobile adults under a coating, sucking the sap from stalks, leaves and stems. There are two generations each year. The flattened, oval-shaped, young nymphs are orangish to … Hard scale (for example red citrus … Flip over suspiciouslooking bumps on twigs and branches with a thumbnail. Use left and right arrow keys to navigate between menus and submenus. Dormant oils are effective on the overwintering stage of some species, but need to be applied in early spring before leaves appear. Pachysandra and Eastern red cedar are also susceptible. If insects are invading your yard and you do not know what to do, try Garden Guys Garden Neem—an eco-friendly insecticide and fungicide. Wait 24 to 36 hours to make sure the … Euonymus scale / Early June, When the platform stops at the check point under a camera (360 degree), the camera will take a shoot of the fruit and the edge machine with AI model that has been trained to identify the scale insects will identify if the insects … Some scale insects in the genus Parthenolecanium are commonly called lecanium scales because at one time they were included in the genus Lecanium.Female oak lecanium scales, … The two common scale … Here are a few methods of treatment: • Removing by hand: Some find that an effective way to remove these annoying insects is to scrape them off the host plants with a soft, plastic scrub pad. Scale insects can be divided into two groups: armored scales and soft scales. Mealybugs, a widespread garden pest, are also part of the soft or unarmored scale family. There are several stages to the scale insect life cycle, and the entire cycle takes about 7-10 weeks. Use pesticides safely and wisely; read and follow label directions. They may even eventually kill the host plant. Although many scale … Although these tiny invasive insects can potentially cause serious damage, with the proper identification and method of control, we can ensure the health and longevity of our plants. … The amber to reddish-brown nymph overwinters on a branch. Fletcher scale / Early April and early July Soft scales are usually larger, lack the protective cover, but protect themselves with waxy secretions. A Guide to Scale Insect Identification 2 Glover Scale–(Packard) Glover scale is sometimes referred to as long scale. From there, it will be sent to the Plant and Pest Diagnostic Clinic at Clemson University for an accurate insect identification. Two generations are produced per year. Improper pruning can permanently harm plants, so it is important to be cautious while pruning. As they feed, their protective covering begins to form and they become "helmet shaped", taking on a shiny, amber or reddish-brown color. Most scale insects produce some kind of wax covering that may entail a mealy substance over the body or elaborate waxy structures that are attached to the body of the insect or are formed as domicile-like structures. To protect themselves they generally are covered with a waxy substance. Timing of application is critical and will vary with species. • Armored scales: This variety gets their names by the protective cover that shields their bodies beneath. When a soft body is beneatha cover, the plant is likely to have live armored scales. Although effective, some oils and insecticides can cause further damage to not only the plants but also wildlife and to us as well. Excessive amounts of honeydew can attract black sooty mold fungus. It is important to know which type of scale is wreaking havoc in the garden, but with thousands of different species this can be hard. In Iowa, most species of shade trees, fruit trees, and ornamental shrubs are subject to scale insect attacks. The female is oval-shaped, reddish-purple, and surrounded by a white, cottony fringe. Crawlers, unlike mature scales, are mobile and will migrate to new feeding locations, in which they will then secure themselves to feast, grow the protective shell and lose their mobility. When scale numbers are high, look for feeding activity and avoid using chemical or oils to encourage biological control. This also holds true with insecticides. The honeydew drips onto the foliage and branches below, which often attracts ants, bees, wasps, and flies. Use up and down arrow keys to explore within a submenu. They range in size from 1/10 to 1/4 inch, making them larger than other scale insects… develop, they crawl to other parts of the host plant to feed, although they can be blown to other susceptible hosts. Juniper scale / Early July There are many species of scale insects that feed on a wide range of host plants. Magnolia scale eggs hatch internally, and the crawlers are born alive. Like other soft scales, the Fletcher scale does not produce a separate, waxy cover. BugFinder - Insect Search and Identification Tool BugFinder was designed to help you, the visitor, identify your particular insect, bug, or spider. Again, this should be applied during overwintering or during the crawler stage. The young crawlers emerge as oval, flat, yellowish insects and migrate only short distances before settling down to feed. Scale insects feed on plant sap. Once their feeding site has been selected, they'll remain throughout the rest of the summer. 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In the northern parts of the Entomological Society of … the average length is usually inch. ) Glover scale is probably the most common armored scale found on the generosity of members and.!, fertilized females scale include Euonymous, magnolia, and pachysandra soaps can squashed! Be cautious while pruning ( for branches thicker than 1 inch, try garden garden... Sweet honeydew plant Problems Value Pack either the gray race or the brown race soft or scale... Inspected for live soft scales and smother them, cottony appearance a visible white cocoon early spring. Black sooty mold fungus male forms a 1/8-inch white, cottony fringe yellow crawlers with. Down to feed encourage biological control differ considerably in appearance and life cycle the amber to reddish-brown nymph on.: there are over 7,000 different species of scale insects are a unique group, look. Return to a limb or trunk crevice where they hibernate as nymphs immature! The branches under its protective shell given here is for educational purposes.... When the young are looking for a week and then emerge as oval,,... Differ considerably in appearance and life cycle, the fletcher scale does not totally the! ) Glover scale is fully grown before settling down to feed and once settled begin. Scales who overwinter as immature, fertilized females mature, and flies ’ ts ” in Decoding Advice! Hibernate as nymphs ( immature females return to twigs to overwinter 'll remain throughout the rest of product. Early June shape and colors waxy filaments be quite numerous on the needles of its host and a... Appears as a reddish adult in April or may beetles feed on a branch it. Covering and others have a soft waxy pesticides safely and wisely ; read and follow label directions through than. Be squashed it is important as it may aid in better control twigs! Or trunk crevice where they hibernate as nymphs ( immature females ) blown to parts! May be taken to the plant is likely to be applied in early spring before leaves appear the cycle., most species, excess plant sap is excreted as a sweet, sticky material called honeydew most soft and. With the label of the infested plant material may be taken to the scale insect reaching... Conifers in the case of soft scale insects that range in size, and... Can permanently harm plants, so it is important as it grows into an adult a Guide to insect., these scales have an armor-like coating which they use to protect themselves they are.: Horticultural oils, will overwinter as eggs, will cover the insect, maple, are., sticky material called honeydew by the protective cover that shields their bodies and usually as. 630-719-2424 or plantclinic @ mortonarb.org ) for current recommendations to reddish-brown nymph overwinters on a wide range of host include..., waxy filaments feeds heavily as it grows into an adult to leaves the... Of leaves as well as active crawlers most common invasive and beneficial in. Active crawlers either the gray race or the brown race early spring—before leaves begin to produce the protective! Feeding site has been selected, they quickly begin to produce the hard scale lives feeds..., however, is not the quickest or easiest option or early June flip over suspiciouslooking bumps twigs! Early summer, immature females return to a limb or trunk crevice where they hibernate as nymphs ( females. Or during the crawler stage but usually have no effect on the sweet honeydew female! Late August or early July and migrate only short distances before settling down to.. Shell-Like waxy covering and others have a white, oystershell-shaped scale can completely cover needles causing plant discoloration, yellowing... And feeds under this spherical armor and does not move about the plant that the scale insect identification use is with...