explore the impact of educational inequality in Pakistan on economic 1 As per Government of Pakistan (2008) literacy is defined as “Ability to read and write simple statements in any language and to be able to do simple calculations”. Read other articles by Zubair. More than 65 different languages are spoken in Pakistan. What you Need to Know About Pakistan’s Linguistic Diversity, Zubair Torwali, Researcher, Linguist and Human Rights Activist, Why Shimon Peres Would Have Rejected Trump’s ‘Deal of the Century’. During General Zia ul Haq’s dictatorial regime, a series of policies were adopted that have negatively impacted religious minorities. I mention these as these scholars want to take on the extremists who persecute religious minorities, Your email address will not be published. Income Inequality in Pakistan: An Analysis of Existing Evidence (Economic GROWTH, INCOME DISTRIBUTION AND EMPLOYMENT Generation) (Report) Pakistan Development Review 1984, … As a recent report highlights, religious minority groups feel the effects of this legal and political marginalisation and disenfranchisement in their daily lives. There is thus a need to address the socio-economic issues that affect the day-to-day life of members of these communities, while not losing sight of the larger issues of forced conversion and blasphemy. http://co.lao.org.pk/wp-content/uploads/2014/09/Prioritizing-Needs-September-15-2016.pdf. INTRODUCTION The basic objective of economic development is improvements in the living standards of the common man and for that just economic growth would not be sufficient. To cope with the hegemony of a single language educational policies need revision. Ranjanpur) compared to northern (Lahore, Gujranwala) and central districts (Sargodha, Hafizabad). He speaks Punjabi,” said the principal of a private school in Lahore. UN Women report shows worrying degree of gender inequality in Pakistan. This article reflects on the findings of a new report by The Legal Aid Society. While this data does not trivialise the issues of blasphemy or forced conversions, it seeks to highlight other key legal and governance issues facing these communities, such as access to public goods and services. Hopefully, such initiatives for the remaining languages in the province will also be undertaken. And in the place of equality for women, violence became the 'rule of the land'. But the most important is to minimize the income inequality. We finally conclude this paper by focusing on the representation of religious minorities and the role Haya is also member of the Board of the Legal Aid Society and Program Director at the Legal Aid Society and the Legal Aid Office, Committee for the Welfare of Prisoners. Despite its evolution and progression one aspect of language seems to be constant, that is, its role in stimulating gender inequality. Women in Pakistan have played an important role throughout Pakistan's history and they are allowed to vote in elections since 1956. This can be done through civil society efforts, public awareness drives, capacity building, the provision of legal aid, and the incorporation of these findings in donor and government strategies. Menaal Munshey is a PhD candidate in criminology at the University of Cambridge. Women in Pakistan make up 48.76% of the population according to the 2017 census of Pakistan. Just How Similar are Pashtun and Jewish People? Features of Indian multilingualism are discussed to show that, despite several positive forces favoring maintenance of minority languages, languages are subjected to inequality and discrimination. Constitutional safeguards and legal precedents alone will not be enough to alleviate the suffering of minorities in Pakistan. Pakistan’s gradual decadence of cultural and linguistic diversity is overshadowed by terrorism, poor governance, and dirty politics. Pakistan is one of the worst countries to live in as a member of a religious minority group, due to the lack of human rights protection accorded to minority communities. Haya Emaan Zahid is a barrister-at-law, who read law at the University College London, United Kingdom. Girls in Pakistan have the right to education. They have started to demand more rights. Recent years have seen an intensification of violent persecution of religious minorities. According to research conducted at Harvard School of Public Heath, the inequality between males and females has led to an alarming discrepancy: in Pakistan, 65% of Punjabi urban males had completed primary school, but only 10% of rural Balochi and Pathan females completed primary school. Linguistic Inequality It is typically a different concept than which runs through the whole chapter as general idea of the linguistic inequality. She has over six years of experience The linguistic items one knows show the experience of the person. Using Different Native Languages in the Classroom: Mostly the Pakistani students faced this kind of … Both English and Urdu are regarded as the languages of development; in a way they are made so. These grievances indicate the growing disenfranchisement of minority communities in Pakistan who suffer from class-based issues, which are further exacerbated by rampant institutional and individual discrimination on the basis of their religion. During our interviews with professional people, different types of themes emerged. Read the full report here: http://co.lao.org.pk/wp-content/uploads/2014/09/Prioritizing-Needs-September-15-2016.pdf. In addition to these policies, extensive research is needed for the standardization of the orthographies of these languages. Read More. working with individuals and groups of people who are in conflict with the law; primarily those incarcerated as under trial prisoners. In Pakistan, only about 1 percent of the population is registered in the tax system and the government collects just 9 percent of the country’s wealth in taxes which is the lowest in the world. “I don’t want to learn Torwali as I understand it. However, as highlighted by a recent report, this does not describe the full extent of the human rights issues faced by minority communities in Pakistan. Zubair was recently awarded the Prof. Anita Ghulam Ali Award of Teachers and Education in Emergencies. It relates to the linguistic items that a person knows. Recent years have seen an intensification of violent persecution of religious minorities. Pakistan’s cultural and linguistic diversity has never been a favorite subject in the channels of national discourse either in media, education or academia. The Pashto speakers, who cannot pronounce certain words of Urdu in a correct way, are always laughed at in media. “Friend, look he (Zubair) drags us back by starting schools in Torwali,” a teacher told his colleague who was discussing the multilingual education initiative by IBT in Bahrain Swat. Poverty in Pakistan has historically been higher in rural than urban areas. Accordingly, we are guided by the UNDP Gender Equality Strategy 2014–2017, advancing the empowerment of women as we support countries in their efforts to eradicate poverty and reduce inequality. Many hindrances in reading and writing a language rest in the orthography or its writing system. (Image credit: Vaigaraiyan via Flickr). The above “linguistic attitudes” towards the languages by the native speakers are the direct outcomes of the policies the state has held dear for decades. Most of the sounds are identical in these languages but so far the community researchers haven’t realized this and have written the same sounds with different letters. The 18th Amendment to the Constitution in 2010 is a right step towards this goal. As the data shows, minority communities’ concerns are complex and reflect the deep discrimination they face in society. St Cross Road, Pashto, for instance, with its multiple varieties in Pakistan and in Afghanistan, contains different symbols which make it difficult for the reader to articulate. The resultant inequality of opportunity is an as yet unrecognised form of injustice. What Everybody Should Know About the Pashtunwali and Torah, Little Known Ways Afghans and Jews are Similar, The Land of the Unsettling Sun: Japan's Revisionist Slide under Abe. Inequality also increased in Pakistan during the 1990s, in both urban and rural areas, Certain legislation and constitutional amendments further deprived religious minorities of human rights, justice, political equality and economic opportunities. New Oxford vs Cambridge Moot Court Case Competition on Disability Law, U of OxHRH J Call for Submissions-Taking Stock: Ten Years of the Equality Act 2010. A defining feature of Pakistan’s economy and society is the inequality of income and productive assets. From Paralysis to Action: A Peace Plan for Palestinians and Israelis to Consider. Required fields are marked *. But one shouldn’t jump to conclusions. Pashto needs a central standard form similar to that of English as BBC English. When a particular language is given an advantage over others speakers of the less developed languages tend to look down on their own languages and cultures and regard them as the barriers in their “development.”. Between provinces, Sindh is the most deprived. Pakistan has an estimated population of 195.4 million in 2016, however, the population was 191.71 million in 2015. Zubair Torwali is a researcher, linguist, and human rights activist. This accelerates the “language and culture shift” within society and ends with more chaos and an unending identity crisis. Menaal Munshey and Haya Emaan Zahid, “Inequality and Discrimination faced by Religious Minorities in Pakistan” (OxHRH, 31 January 2017) [Date of Access]. Save my name, email, and website in this browser for the next time I comment. Many Pakistani scholars focus on the lack of productivity and low literacy levels of the domestic workforce to explain poverty in Pakistan. Minority communities’ lives are increasingly marred by negative social identity, insecurity and a lack of human rights protection. The language activists in these communities may know that they, more or less, share the same ancestor and same culture. In the wake of the devolution of education to the provinces, the Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa government adopted Pashto as a medium of instruction in primary education. Ultimately, the report shows that the odds are clearly stacked, in a wide range of ways, along gender, ethnic, linguistic, class and sexual orientation lines – to name but a few. More and more women in Pakistan are fed up with gender inequality. This includes a discriminatory educational curriculum and an underlying radicalisation of thought which adopted an “us vs. them” narrative. Yuri Block F 6/12/15 Challenges Pakistani Women Face due to Gender Inequality Many fail to realize, due to long held beliefs and social norms, that gender equality is beneficial to both men and women. Oxford OX1 3UL, © 2020 Oxford Human Rights Hub | Site by One, Menaal Munshey and Haya Zahid - More about Essay On Gender Inequality In Pakistan. Next, the one who speaks Urdu well. Should All Male Prisoners be Required to Have Their Hair Cut? For example, in Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa and Gilgit-Baltistan all the languages other than Hindko and Burushaski are Dardic of the Indo-Aryan branch of languages. To reverse this trend, a concerted effort is needed across government, judiciary, and civil society. Urdu 65% Sindhi 15.5% English 10.4% Other languages 9.5% Thus, in Pakistan, linguistic (and social) inequality is mediated through kinds of educational institutions with distinct educational practices related to medium of instruction and tracking of students into the local exam boards or University of Cambridge curricula and examination systems (Mansoor, 2005; Rahman, 1999). Pakistan has literacy rate 58percent in 2012, (Only 22 percent of girls, compared to 47 percent boys, complete primary schooling (Economic Survey of Pakistan 2012).This is included people who can write and … Today almost all the comic text messages are related to Pathans and Sikhs. In this paper, Amory Gethin, Sultan Mehmood and Thomas Piketty study political cleavages in Pakistan. What is Linguistic Inequality? UN Women report shows worrying degree of gender inequality in Pakistan “Evaluating health and education of women as well as economic opportunities, Pakistan is … To do so, they make use of a unique set of polls covering all … A standardization in the orthographies with more commonalities not only will make their job easier but also integrate the speakers and enhance their political and social powers. It may or may not interest you, a group of North American Muslim scholars (yaqeen institute) are working on a document for the protection of minorities in places like Pakistan. Within the justice system, there remains an overall tolerance of violations of religious freedoms and an inadequate approach towards protecting targets of such violence or effective prosecution of its perpetrators, including both State and non-State actors. Muslim‟s religious book Quran is in Arabic language. A primary tool used for reestablishing this ‘inferior’ social identity was the law. These issues should be dealt with effectively through practical and implementable initiatives. Furthermore, it resolved to incorporate four other languages (Hinko, Khowar, Seriaki and Indus Kohistani) to be gradually incorporated in the education at the primary stages. explains that how we can reduce the income inequality in Pakistan. INCOME INEQUALITIES IN PAKISTAN AND A STRATEGY TO REDUCE INCOME INEQUALITIES by A. R. Kemal I. Although agriculture is the main activity in rural society, a significant percentage of the rural labor force, estimated at more than 40%, depends completely on nonfarm activities. Pakistan is the sixth most populous country in the world, with sixty percent of its population under the age of thirty. Her children were also in … Born and raised in Bahrain Swat, Pakistan, he heads the Institute for Education and Development, a civil society organization working for the conservation of cultural, lingual and natural heritage among the linguistic communities in north Pakistan. Studies of language-based inequality have hitherto largely focused on the case of linguistic minorities, while far less attention has been paid to the developmental stakes of a more equitable terrain for widely-spoken languages in education, training and access to livelihoods. The High Court of England and Wales doubts it. Instead of being proud of the beautiful linguistic diversity, Pakistani policy and decision makers have always been afraid of it. Related to Pathans and Sikhs professional people, and civil society that is, its role stimulating... 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